M232. Causal Inference
(Same as Biostatistics M235.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisites: Biostatistics 200C, 202B, or equivalent. Philosophical foundations, logical paradoxes, decision analysis, selection bias, confounding, ecological paradox, historical development, potential outcomes, Rubin causal model, propensity scores, competing perspectives on path analysis and graphical/structural-equation models, experiments with noncompliance, principal stratification, decision making when causality is disputed, role of ethics in decision making. S/U or letter grading.