• 1. Beginnings of Western Philosophy

    Units: 5

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Origins of Greek cosmology and philosophy, beginnings of systematic thought and scientific investigation concerning such questions as origin and nature of the material world, concept of laws of nature, possibility and extent of knowledge. Concentration on pre-Socratic philosophers, particularly Anaximander, Heraclitus, the Pythagoreans, Parmenides, Empedocles, and Greek atomists, during first two thirds of course and on Socrates and some earlier works of Plato in last few weeks. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 2. Introduction to Philosophy of Religion

    Units: 5

    Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour. Introductory study of such topics as nature and grounds of religious belief, relation between religion and ethics, nature and existence of God, problem of evil, and what can be learned from religious experience. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 3. Historical Introduction to Philosophy

    Units: 5

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, two hours. Historical introduction to Western philosophy based on classical texts dealing with major problems, related thematically and studied in chronological order: properties of rational argument, existence of God, problem of knowledge, nature of causality, relation between mind and body, possibility of justice, and others. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 4. Philosophical Analysis of Contemporary Moral Issues

    Units: 5

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Critical study of principles and arguments advanced in discussion of current moral issues. Possible topics include revolutionary violence, rules of warfare, sexual morality, right of privacy, punishment, nuclear warfare and deterrence, abortion and mercy killing, experimentation with human subjects, rights of women. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 5. Philosophy in Literature

    Units: 5

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Philosophical inquiry into such themes as freedom, responsibility, guilt, love, self-knowledge and self-deception, death, and meaning of life through examination of great literary works in Western tradition. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 6. Introduction to Political Philosophy

    Units: 5

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Study of some classical or contemporary works in political philosophy. Questions that may be discussed include What is justice? Why obey the law? Which form of government is best? How much personal freedom should be allowed in society? P/NP or letter grading.

  • 7. Introduction to Philosophy of Mind

    Units: 5

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Introductory study of philosophical issues about nature of the mind and its relation to the body, including materialism, functionalism, behaviorism, determinism and free will, nature of psychological knowledge. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 8. Introduction to Philosophy of Science

    Units: 5

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Study of selected problems concerning the character and reliability of scientific understanding, such as nature of scientific theory and explanation, reality of theoretical entities, inductive confirmation of hypotheses, and occurrence of scientific revolutions. Discussion at nontechnical level of episodes from history of science. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 9. Principles of Critical Reasoning

    Units: 5

    Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour. Nature of arguments: how to analyze them and assess soundness of reasoning they represent. Common fallacies that often occur in arguments discussed in light of what counts as good deductive or inductive inference. Other topics include use of language in argumentation to arouse emotions as contrasted with conveying thoughts, logic of scientific experiments and hypothesis-testing in general, and some general ideas about probability and its application in making normative decisions (e.g., betting). P/NP or letter grading.

  • 19. Fiat Lux Freshman Seminars

    Units: 1

    Seminar, one hour. Discussion of and critical thinking about topics of current intellectual importance, taught by faculty members in their areas of expertise and illuminating many paths of discovery at UCLA. P/NP grading.

  • 21. Skepticism and Rationality

    Units: 5

    Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour. Can we know anything with certainty? How can we justify any of our beliefs? Introduction to study of these and related questions through works of some great philosophers of modern period, such as Descartes, Hume, Leibniz, or Berkeley. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 22. Introduction to Ethical Theory

    Units: 5

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Not open for credit to students with credit for course 22W. Recommended or required for many upper division courses in Group III. Systematic introduction to ethical theory, including discussion of egoism, utilitarianism, justice, responsibility, meaning of ethical terms, relativism, etc. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 22W. Introduction to Ethical Theory

    Units: 5

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Enforced requisite: English Composition 3 or 3H or English as a Second Language 36. Limited to freshmen/sophomores. Not open for credit to students with credit for course 22. Introduction to major ethical theories in Western thought. Examination of works of Plato, Aristotle, Hume, Kant, and Mill. Topics include ideas of virtue, obligation, egoism, relativism, and foundations of morals. Four papers required. Satisfies Writing II requirement. Letter grading.

  • 23. Meaning and Communication

    Units: 5

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Theory of meaning and its relationship to philosophy more generally; nature, origins, and acquisition of language. Additional topics may include nonlinguistic and nonhuman systems of communication; theories of interpretation in law, literature, and art; use of theoretical terms in science. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 31. Logic, First Course

    Units: 5

    Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour. Recommended for students who plan to pursue more advanced studies in logic. Elements of symbolic logic, sentential and quantificational; forms of reasoning and structure of language. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 88S. Terrorism, State, and Justification

    Units: 1

    Seminar, one hour. The subject of terrorism is highly prevalent in contemporary American discourse. Politicians and news pundits discuss acts of terrorism, its origins, and its consequences. However, it is rare to ask what terrorism is. How does terrorism differ from warfare? How does terrorism differ from homicide? Use of philosophical and historical material on terrorism to attempt to answer these two questions. P/NP grading. Facilitated by Chad Serrao, with Alexander J. Julius as faculty mentor.

  • 89. Honors Seminars

    Units: 1

    Seminar, three hours. Limited to 20 students. Designed as adjunct to lower division lecture course. Exploration of topics in greater depth through supplemental readings, papers, or other activities and led by lecture course instructor. May be applied toward honors credit for eligible students. Honors content noted on transcript. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 89HC. Honors Contracts

    Units: 1

    Tutorial, three hours. Limited to students in College Honors Program. Designed as adjunct to lower division lecture course. Individual study with lecture course instructor to explore topics in greater depth through supplemental readings, papers, or other activities. May be repeated for maximum of 4 units. Individual honors contract required. Honors content noted on transcript. Letter grading.

  • 97. Freshman Seminar

    Units: 4

    Variable topics; consult Schedule of Classes or "Department Announcements" for topics to be offered in a specific term. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor.

  • 99. Student Research Program

    Units: 1 to 2

    Tutorial (supervised research or other scholarly work), three hours per week per unit. Entry-level research for lower division students under guidance of faculty mentor. Students must be in good academic standing and enrolled in minimum of 12 units (excluding this course). Individual contract required; consult Undergraduate Research Center. May be repeated. P/NP grading.

  • 100A. History of Greek Philosophy

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: one philosophy course. Survey of origins of Greek metaphysics from pre-Socratics through Plato and Aristotle. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 100B. Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: one philosophy course. Strongly recommended requisite: course 100A. Survey of development and transformation of Greek metaphysics and epistemology within context of philosophical theology, and transition from medieval to early modern period. Special emphasis on Augustine, Anselm, Aquinas, and Descartes. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 100C. History of Modern Philosophy, 1650 to 1800

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: one philosophy course. Strongly recommended requisite: course 100B. Courses 100A, 100B, and 100C should be taken in immediately successive terms if possible. Survey of development of metaphysics and theory of knowledge from 1650 to 1800, including Locke and/or Berkeley, Malebranche and/or Leibniz, and culminating in Hume and Kant. Topics may include views of these (and perhaps other) philosophers of the period on mind and body, causality, existence of God, skepticism, empiricism, limits of human knowledge, and philosophical foundations of modern science. P/NP or letter grading.

  • M101A. Plato -- Earlier Dialogues

    Units: 4

    (Same as Classics M146A.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: one philosophy course. Study of selected topics in early and middle dialogues of Plato. P/NP or letter grading.

  • M101B. Plato -- Later Dialogues

    Units: 4

    (Same as Classics M146B.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: one philosophy course. Study of selected topics in middle and later dialogues of Plato. P/NP or letter grading.

  • M102. Aristotle

    Units: 4

    (Same as Classics M147.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: one philosophy course. Study of selected works of Aristotle. P/NP or letter grading.

  • M103A. Ancient Greek and Roman Philosophy

    Units: 4

    (Same as Classics M145A.) Lecture, three hours. Study of some major Greek and Roman philosophical texts, including those of pre-Socratics, Plato, Aristotle, and Hellenistic philosophers, with emphasis on historical and cultural setting of texts, their literary form, interrelations, and contribution to discussion of basic philosophical issues. P/NP or letter grading.

  • M103B. Later Ancient Greek Philosophy

    Units: 4

    (Same as Classics M145B.) Lecture, three hours. Preparation: one course from 1, 100A, M101B, M102, or M103A. Study of some major texts in Greek philosophy of Hellenistic and Roman periods. Readings vary and include works by Stoics, skeptics, philosophers of science, Neoplatonists, etc. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 104. Topics in Islamic Philosophy

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three to four hours; discussion, one hour (when scheduled). Preparation: one philosophy course. Development of philosophy within orbit of Islam from beginning of interaction of Islam with ancient philosophy to period of hegemony of Ottoman Empire. Figures examined may vary but usually include many of al-Kindi, Ibn Sina (Avicenna), al-Ghazali, ben Maimon (Maimonides), Ibn Rushd (Averroes), and Suhrawardi. Topics include central issues in metaphysics and epistemology. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 105. Medieval Philosophy from Augustine to Maimonides

    Units: 4

    Prerequisite: one philosophy course or consent of instructor. Development of early medieval philosophy within framework of Judeo-Christian theology and its assimilation and criticism of Greek philosophical heritage. Focus on problem of universals, existence and nature of God, problem of evil, and doctrines of the Trinity and atonement. Selected writings from Augustine through Maimonides read in English translation.

  • 106. Later Medieval Philosophy

    Units: 4

    Prerequisite: one philosophy course or consent of instructor. Metaphysics, theory of knowledge, and theology of Aquinas, Duns Scotus, and Ockham, with less full discussion of other authors from the 13th through early 15th century. Selected texts read in English translation.

  • 107. Topics in Medieval Philosophy

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: one philosophy course. Recommended requisite: course 105 or 106. Study of philosophy and theology of one medieval philosopher such as Augustine, Anselm, Abelard, Aquinas, Scotus, or Ockham, or study of one single area such as logic or theory of knowledge in several medieval philosophers. Topic announced each term. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. P/NP or letter grading.

  • C108. Hobbes

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: one philosophy course. Hobbes' political philosophy, especially "Leviathan," with attention to its relevance to contemporary political philosophy. May be concurrently scheduled with course C208. P/NP or letter grading.

  • C109. Descartes

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour. Requisites: course 21 or two philosophy courses. Study of works of Descartes, with discussion of issues such as problem of skepticism, foundations of knowledge, existence of God, relation between mind and body, and connection between science and metaphysics. May be concurrently scheduled with course C209. P/NP or letter grading.

  • C110. Spinoza

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: course 21. Study of philosophy of Spinoza. May be concurrently scheduled with course C210, in which case there is weekly discussion meeting, plus fewer readings and shorter papers for undergraduates. Limited to 30 students when concurrently scheduled. P/NP or letter grading.

  • C111. Leibniz

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: course 21. Study of philosophy of Leibniz. May be concurrently scheduled with course C211, in which case there is weekly discussion meeting, plus fewer readings and shorter papers for undergraduates. Limited to 30 students when concurrently scheduled. P/NP or letter grading.

  • C112. Locke and Berkeley

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours. Preparation: one philosophy course. Study of philosophies of Locke and Berkeley, with emphasis in some cases on one or the other. Limited to 30 students when concurrently scheduled with course C212. P/NP or letter grading.

  • C114. Hume

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: one philosophy course. Selected topics from metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical writings of Hume. Limited to 40 students when concurrently scheduled with course C214. P/NP or letter grading.

  • C115. Kant

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: course 21 or 22. Study of Kant's views on related topics in theory of knowledge, ethics, and politics. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. Concurrently scheduled with course C215. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 116. 19th-Century Philosophy

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Prerequisite: one philosophy course or consent of instructor. Selected topics in 19th-century thought.

  • 117. Late 19th- and Early 20th-Century Philosophy

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Prerequisite: one philosophy course or consent of instructor. Selected topics in work of one or more of following philosophers: Bolzano, Frege, Husserl, Meinong, G. Moore, early Russell, and Wittgenstein. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor.

  • 118. Kierkegaard

    Units: 4

    Preparation: one philosophy course. Philosophical study of some major works of Kierkegaard, with emphasis on interpretation of the texts.

  • C119. Topics in Modern Philosophy

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: one philosophy course. Selected topics in one or more philosophies of early modern period, or study in single area such as theory of knowledge or metaphysics in several philosophies. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. Concurrently scheduled with course C219. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 124. Philosophy of Science: Historical

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: one philosophy course. Historical introduction to philosophy of science. Several general topics discussed in context of actual episodes in development of natural sciences. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor.

  • 125. Philosophy of Science: Contemporary

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: course 31 or 124. Introduction to contemporary philosophy of science, focusing on problems of central importance. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor.

  • 126. Philosophy of Science: Social Sciences

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: two philosophy courses. Discussion of topics in philosophy of social sciences (e.g., methods of social sciences in relation to physical sciences, value-bias in social inquiry, concept formation, theory construction, explanation and prediction, nature of social laws).

  • C127A. Philosophy of Language

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour. Enforced requisite: course 31. Syntax, semantics, pragmatics. Semantical concept of truth, sense and denotation, synonymy and analyticity, modalities and tenses, indirect discourse, indexical terms, semantical paradoxes. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. Concurrently scheduled with course C228A. P/NP or letter grading.

  • C127B. Philosophy of Language

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: course 31. Course C127A is not requisite to C127B. Selected topics similar to those considered in course C127A, but at more advanced and technical level. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. Concurrently scheduled with course C228B. P/NP or letter grading.

  • C127C. Philosophy of Language

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: course 31. Recommended: course C127A or C127B. Selected topics similar to those considered in course C127B, but with focus on contemporary figures. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. Concurrently scheduled with course C228C. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 128. Topics in Philosophy of Mathematics

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours. Requisites: courses 31, 132, and preferably one additional logic course. Study of selected topics in philosophy of mathematics. May include logicism of Frege and Russell, arithmetic reduced to logic; ramified type theory and impredicative definition (Russell, Poincaré, early Weyl); intuitionism of Brouwer, Heyting, and later Weyl; proof theory of Hilbert. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 129. Philosophy of Psychology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three to four hours; discussion, one hour (when scheduled). Preparation: one 4-unit psychology course, one philosophy course. Selected philosophical issues arising from psychological theories. Nature of perception and issues about perceptual psychology and development of important types of representation (e.g., of body, cause, agency) in early childhood. Relevance of computer simulation to accounts of thinking and meaning; relations between semantical theory and learning theory; psychological aspects of theory of syntax. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 130. Philosophy of Space and Time

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: two philosophy courses or one philosophy course and one physics course. Selected philosophical problems concerning nature of space and time. Philosophical implications of space-time theories, such as those of Newton and Einstein. Topics may include nature of geometry, conventionalism, absolutist versus relationist views of space and time, philosophical impact of relativity theory.

  • 131. Science and Metaphysics

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three or four hours; discussion, one hour (when scheduled). Preparation: two philosophy courses. Recommended: some background in basic calculus and physics. Intensive study of one or two metaphysical topics on which results of modern science have been thought to bear. Topics may include nature of causation, reality and direction of time, time-travel, backwards causation, realism, determinism, absolute view of space, etc. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 132. Logic, Second Course

    Units: 4

    (Formerly numbered 137.) Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour. Enforced requisite: course 31 (preferably in preceding term). Symbolic logic: extension of systematic development of course 31. Quantifiers, identity, definite descriptions. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 133. Topics in Logic and Semantics

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour. Enforced requisite: course 31. Possible topics include formal theories, definitions, alternative theories of descriptions, many-valued logics, deviant logics. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. P/NP or letter grading.

  • M134. Introduction to Set Theory

    Units: 4

    (Same as Mathematics M114S.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: course 135 or Mathematics 110A or 131A. Axiomatic set theory as framework for mathematical concepts; relations and functions, numbers, cardinality, axiom of choice, transfinite numbers. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 135. Introduction to Metalogic

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour. Enforced requisite: course 31. Strongly recommended requisite: course 132 (or Mathematics 33A or 33B). Metatheory sentential logic and first-order logic. Introduction to formal language, formal deductive systems, and models. Compactness and completeness theorems that concern complexity of notion of logical consequences. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 136. Modal Logic

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours. Requisite: course 31. First course in two-term sequence (also see course 176). Topics include various normal modal systems, derivability within the systems, Kripke-style semantics and generalizations, Lemmon/Scott completeness, incompleteness in tense and modal logic, quantificational extensions. Letter grading.

  • 137. Philosophy of Biology

    Units: 4

    (Formerly numbered 132.) Lecture, four hours. Preparation: one philosophy course. Intensive study of one or two current topics in philosophy of biology, which may include structure of evolutionary theory, fitness, taxonomy, reductionism, concept of biological species, and biological explanation. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 138. Philosophy of Visual Representation

    Units: 4

  • 150. Society and Morals

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: course 22. Critical study of principles and arguments advanced in discussion of current moral and social issues. Topics similar to those in course 4, but familiarity with some basic philosophical concepts and methods presupposed. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor.

  • 151A. History of Ethics: Selected Classics in Ancient Ethical Theories -- Plato, Aristotle

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: two philosophy courses. May be taken independently for credit. P/NP or letter grading.

  • C151B. History of Ethics: Modern

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: two philosophy courses. Intensive study of Kant's ethical theory. May be taken independently for credit. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. May be concurrently scheduled with course C245. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 151C. History of Ethics: Selected Classics of Medieval Ethics

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: two philosophy courses. May be taken independently for credit. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 153A. Topics in Ethical Theory: Normative Ethics

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: course 22. Study of selected topics in normative ethical theory. Topics may include human rights, virtues and vices, principles of culpability and praiseworthiness (criteria of right action). May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. P/NP or letter grading.

  • C153B. Topics in Ethical Theory: Metaethics

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: course 22. Study and analysis of basic concepts, selected problems, and contemporary issues in metaethics. Topics may include analysis of moral language, justification of moral beliefs, moral realism, skepticism, free will, moral motivation, etc. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. May be concurrently scheduled with course C253B. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 154. Topics in Value Theory: Rationality and Action

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: course 6 or 7 or 22. Selected topics concerning normative issues in practical rationality or philosophy of action. Topics may include moral and practical dilemmas, nature of reasons for action, rationality of morality and prudence, weakness of will, freedom of will, and decision theory. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 154B. Topics in Value Theory: Moral Responsibility and Free Will

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: one philosophy course. Examination of philosophical problems surrounding moral responsibility and free will, using contemporary or classical readings in attempt to better understand kind of freedom required for moral agents. May be repeated for credit. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 155. Medical Ethics

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three or four hours; discussion, one hour (when scheduled). Examination of philosophical issues raised by problems of medical ethics, such as abortion, euthanasia, and medical experimentation. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. P/NP or letter grading.

  • C156. Topics in Political Philosophy

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Analysis of some basic concepts in political theory. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. May be concurrently scheduled with course C247. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 157A. History of Political Philosophy

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: two philosophy courses. Reading and discussion of classic works in earlier political theory, especially those by Hobbes, Locke, Hume, and Rousseau. May be repeated with consent of instructor.

  • 157B. History of Political Philosophy

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: two philosophy courses. Reading and discussion of classic works in later political theory, especially those by Kant, Hegel, and Marx. May be repeated with consent of instructor.

  • 161. Topics in Aesthetic Theory

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: one philosophy course. Philosophical theories about nature and importance of art and art criticism, aesthetic experience, and aesthetic values. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor.

  • 166. Philosophy of Law

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: one philosophy course. Examination, through study of recent philosophical writings, of such topics as nature of law, relationship of law and morals, legal reasoning, punishment, and obligation to obey law. May be repeated for credit. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 170. Philosophy of Mind

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: two relevant philosophy courses. Analysis of various problems concerning nature of mind and mental phenomena, such as relation between mind and body, and our knowledge of other minds. May be repeated once for credit with consent of instructor.

  • 172. Philosophy of Language and Communication

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Theories of meaning and communication; how words refer to things; limits of meaningfulness; analysis of speech acts; relation of everyday language to scientific discoveries. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 174. Topics in Theory of Knowledge

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three to four hours; discussion, one hour (when scheduled). Requisite: course 21. Intensive investigation of one or two selected topics or works in theory of knowledge, such as a priori knowledge, problem of induction, memory, knowledge as justified true belief. Topics announced each term. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. P/NP or letter grading.

  • M175. Topics in Philosophy of Religion

    Units: 4

    (Same as Religion M175.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: course 21 or 22. Intensive investigation of one or two topics or works in philosophy of religion, such as attributes of God, arguments for or against existence of God, or relation between religion and ethics. Topics announced each term. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor.

  • 176. Metaphysics of Modality

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours. Requisites: courses 31, 132. Highly recommended: course 136. Second course in two-term sequence (also see course 136). Metaphysical foundations of modal logic and philosophical basis of model theory of modal logic. What are possible worlds? What is accessibility relation? Is modal logic one logic or one theory? Is its focus logical or metaphysical necessity? Are both notions really distinct? How metaphysically involved is (quantified) modal logic? What is its connection to doctrines of (1) Haecceitism and (2) Aristotelian Essentialism? P/NP or letter grading.

  • 177A. Existentialism

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: one philosophy course. Analysis of methods, problems, and views of some of the following: Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Jaspers, Sartre, Marcel, and Camus. Possible topics include metaphysical foundations, nature of mind, freedom, problem of self, other people, ethics, existential psychoanalysis. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 177B. Historical Studies in Existentialism

    Units: 4

    Preparation: one philosophy course. Study of central philosophical texts of one of the following: Nietzsche, Heidegger, Jaspers, Buber, Sartre, or Camus. Emphasis on explication and interpretation of the texts. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor.

  • 178. Phenomenology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: two philosophy courses. Introduction to phenomenological method of approaching philosophical problems via works of some of the following: Brentano, Husserl, Heidegger, Scheler, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty, Ricoeur. Topics include ontology, epistemology, and particularly philosophy of mind.

  • 179. Asian Philosophy

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Examination of central concepts and arguments in Buddhist or Chinese philosophy. Appropriate parallels to social concepts in Western tradition. May be repeated for credit with consent of department. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 180. Philosophy of Action

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three or four hours; discussion, one hour (when scheduled). Preparation: two philosophy courses. Study of various concepts employed in understanding human action. Topics may include rational choice, desire, intention, weakness of will, and self-deception. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 181. Philosophy of Perception

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours. Preparation: two philosophy courses. Critical study of main philosophical theories of perception and arguments used to establish them. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 182. Elements of Metaphysics

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: course 21. Study of basic metaphysical questions; nature of physical world, of minds, and of universals; and answers provided by alternative systems (e.g., phenomenalism, materialism, dualism). P/NP or letter grading.

  • 183. Theory of Knowledge

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: course 21. Problem-oriented study of contemporary classics of epistemology on topics such as skepticism, justification, foundationalism, epistemic intuitions, tracking, closure, reliabilism, internalism, and externalism, among others. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 184. Topics in Metaphysics

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: course 21. Intensive investigation of one or two topics or works in metaphysics, such as personal identity, nature of dispositions, possibility and necessity, universals and particulars, causality. Topics announced each term. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 185. Major Philosophers of 20th Century

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: two philosophy courses. Study of writings of one or more major modern philosophers (e.g., Russell, Moore, Wittgenstein, Carnap, Quine). May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. P/NP or letter grading.

  • M187. Philosophical Analysis of Issues in Feminist Theory

    Units: 4

    (Same as Gender Studies M110C.) Lecture, three hours. Requisite for Gender Studies majors: Gender Studies 10; for other students: one philosophy course. Examination in depth of different theoretical positions on gender and women as they have been applied to study of philosophy. Emphasis on theoretical contributions made by new scholarship on women in philosophy. Critical study of concepts and principles that arise in discussion of women's rights and liberation. Philosophical approach to feminist theories. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. Letter grading.

  • 188SA. Individual Studies for USIE Facilitators

    Units: 1

    Tutorial, to be arranged. Enforced corequisite: Honors Collegium 101E. Limited to junior/senior USIE facilitators. Individual study in regularly scheduled meetings with faculty mentor to discuss selected USIE seminar topic, conduct preparatory research, and begin preparation of syllabus. Individual contract with faculty mentor required. May not be repeated. Letter grading.

  • 188SB. Individual Studies for USIE Facilitators

    Units: 1

    Tutorial, to be arranged. Enforced requisite: course 188SA. Enforced corequisite: Honors Collegium 101E. Limited to junior/senior USIE facilitators. Individual study in regularly scheduled meetings with faculty mentor to finalize course syllabus. Individual contract with faculty mentor required. May not be repeated. Letter grading.

  • 188SC. Individual Studies for USIE Facilitators

    Units: 2

    Tutorial, to be arranged. Enforced requisite: course 188SB. Limited to junior/senior USIE facilitators. Individual study in regularly scheduled meetings with faculty mentor while facilitating USIE 88S course. Individual contract with faculty mentor required. May not be repeated. Letter grading.

  • 189. Advanced Honors Seminars

    Units: 1

    Seminar, one hour. Limited to 20 students. Designed as adjunct to upper division lecture course. Exploration of topics in greater depth through supplemental readings, papers, or other activities and led by lecture course instructor. May be applied toward College Honors for eligible students. May not be applied toward departmental honors. May be repeated for credit. Honors content noted on transcript. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 189HC. Honors Contracts

    Units: 1

    Tutorial, one hour. Limited to students in College Honors Program. Designed as adjunct to upper division lecture course. Individual study with lecture course instructor to explore topics in greater depth through supplemental readings, papers, or other activities. May not be applied toward departmental honors. May be repeated for maximum of 4 units. Individual honors contract required. Honors content noted on transcript. Letter grading.

  • 191. Variable Topics Research Seminars: Philosophy

    Units: 4

    Seminar, one hour; discussion, three hours. Variable topics; consult "Schedule of Classes" or "Department Announcements" for topic to be offered in specific term. Reading, discussion, and development of culminating project. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 198A. Honors Research in Philosophy

    Units: 2

    Tutorial, two hours. Limited to junior/senior philosophy honors program students. To be taken in conjunction with one upper division philosophy lecture course, either concurrently or in subsequent term, under direct supervision of lecture course instructor. Advanced work related to lecture course, further reading, and preparation of 12- to 15-page paper representing original research. Courses 198A and 198B must be taken in conjunction with two different lecture courses, and both must be taken to satisfy departmental honors requirement. May be repeated for credit. Individual contract required. Letter grading.

  • 198B. Honors Research in Philosophy

    Units: 2

    Tutorial, two hours. Limited to junior/senior philosophy honors program students. To be taken in conjunction with one upper division philosophy lecture course, either concurrently or in subsequent term, under direct supervision of lecture course instructor. Advanced work related to lecture course, further reading, and preparation of 12- to 15-page paper representing original research. Courses 198A and 198B must be taken in conjunction with two different lecture courses, and both must be taken to satisfy departmental honors requirement. May be repeated for credit. Individual contract required. Letter grading.

  • 198C. Honors Research in Philosophy

    Units: 4

    Tutorial, four hours. Limited to junior/senior philosophy honors program students. Development and completion of honors thesis or comprehensive research project under direct supervision of faculty member. May be repeated for credit. Individual contract required. Letter grading.

  • 199. Directed Research in Philosophy

    Units: 2 to 4

    Tutorial, three hours. Limited to juniors/seniors. Supervised individual research under guidance of faculty mentor. Culminating paper or research project required. Up to 8 units may be applied toward degree requirements, but no 199 course may be substituted for course in one of four groups on basis of similarity of subject matter. May be repeated for credit. Individual contract required. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 200A. Seminar for First-Year Graduate Students

    Units: 4

    Seminar, three hours. Limited to and required of all first-year graduate philosophy students. Selected topics in metaphysics and epistemology, history of philosophy, and ethics. S/U or letter grading.

  • 200B. Seminar for First-Year Graduate Students

    Units: 4

    Seminar, three hours. Limited to and required of all first-year graduate philosophy students. Selected topics in metaphysics and epistemology, history of philosophy, and ethics. S/U or letter grading.

  • 200C. Seminar for First-Year Graduate Students

    Units: 4

    Seminar, three hours. Limited to and required of all first-year graduate philosophy students. Selected topics in metaphysics and epistemology, history of philosophy, and ethics. S/U or letter grading.

  • 201. Plato

    Units: 4

    Seminar, four hours. Study of later dialogues. S/U or letter grading.

  • 202. Aristotle

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours. Analysis of major problems in Aristotle's philosophy based on reading, exposition, and critical discussion of relevant texts in English translation. S/U or letter grading.

  • 203. Seminar: History of Ancient Philosophy

    Units: 4

    Seminar, four hours. Selected problems and philosophers. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • 206. Topics in Medieval Philosophy

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours. Study of philosophy and theology of one or several medieval philosophers such as Augustine, Anselm, Abelard, Aquinas, Scotus, or Ockham or study of single area such as logic or theory of knowledge in several medieval philosophers. Topics announced each term. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • 207. Seminar: History of Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy

    Units: 4

    Seminar, four hours. Selected problems and philosophers. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • C208. Hobbes

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Preparation: one philosophy course. Hobbes' political philosophy, especially "Leviathan," with attention to its relevance to contemporary political philosophy. May be concurrently scheduled with course C108. S/U or letter grading.

  • C209. Descartes

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour. Study of works of Descartes, with discussion of issues such as problem of skepticism, foundations of knowledge, existence of God, relation between mind and body, and connection between science and metaphysics. May be concurrently scheduled with course C109. S/U or letter grading.

  • C210. Spinoza

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Selected topics in philosophy of Spinoza. May be concurrently scheduled with course C110, in which case there is two-hour biweekly discussion meeting, plus additional readings and longer term paper for graduate students. S/U or letter grading.

  • C211. Leibniz

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Selected topics in philosophy of Leibniz. May be concurrently scheduled with course C111, in which case there is two-hour biweekly discussion meeting, plus additional readings and longer term paper for graduate students. S/U or letter grading.

  • C212. Locke and Berkeley

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours. Preparation: one philosophy course. Study of philosophies of Locke and Berkeley, with emphasis in some cases on one or the other. Limited to 30 students when concurrently scheduled with course C112. S/U or letter grading.

  • C214. Hume

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Selected topics in philosophy of Hume. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. May be concurrently scheduled with course C114. S/U or letter grading.

  • C215. Kant

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: course 21 or 22. Study of Kant's views on related topics in theory of knowledge, ethics, and politics. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. Concurrently scheduled with course C115. S/U or letter grading.

  • 216. 19th-Century Philosophy

    Units: 4

    Seminar, four hours. Topics in 19th-century philosophy. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • C219. Topics in Modern Philosophy

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Selected topics in one or more philosophies of early modern period, or study in single area such as theory of knowledge or metaphysics in several philosophies. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. Concurrently scheduled with course C119. S/U or letter grading.

  • 220. Seminar: Topics in History of Philosophy

    Units: 4

    Seminar, three hours. Selected problems and philosophers which may be from different periods. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • 221A. Topics in Set Theory

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Requisite: Mathematics M114S. Sets, relations, functions, partial and total orderings; well-orderings. Ordinal and cardinal arithmetic, finiteness and infinity, continuum hypothesis, inaccessible numbers. Formalization of set theory: Zermelo/Fraenkel; von Neumann/Gödel theory. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • 221B. History of Set Theory

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours. Development of concept of set and axiomatic set theory by examining selected writings of Frege, Cantor, Russell, Zermelo, Gödel, and several others. Origins and significance of certain key ideas, such as set theory as logic, axiomatic set theory as reaction to paradoxes, formal first-order axiomatic set theory as opposed to informal axiomatics, type theory and rank hierarchy, ramification and predicativity, proper classes and sets as small classes, and particular Zermelo/Fraenkel axiomatic theory. Emphasis on actual expressed ideas and views of various influential authors. S/U or letter grading.

  • 222A. Godel Theory

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours. Preparation: several courses in logic. First in series of three courses leading to Gödel incompleteness theorem and Tarski definition of truth. S/U or letter grading.

  • 222B. Godel Theory

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours. Requisite: course 222A. Second-order arithmetic. Second in series of three courses leading to Gödel incompleteness theorem and Tarski definition of truth. S/U or letter grading.

  • 222C. Godel Theory

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours. Requisite: course 222B. Gödel numbering and Gödel theory. Final course in Gödel theory series. S/U or letter grading.

  • 224. Philosophy of Physics

    Units: 4

    Seminar, three hours. Selected philosophical topics related to physical theory, depending on interests and background of participants, including space and time; observation in quantum mechanics; foundations of statistical mechanics. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • 225. Probability and Inductive Logic

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours. Topics may include interpretations of probability, Bayesian and non-Bayesian confirmation theory, paradoxes of confirmation, coherence, and conditioning. S/U or letter grading.

  • 226. Topics in Mathematical Logic

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours. Content varies from term to term. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • 227. Philosophy of Social Science

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours. Examination of philosophical problems concerning concepts and methods used in social sciences. Topics may include relation between social processes and individual psychology, logic of explanation in social sciences, determinism and spontaneity in history, interpretation of cultures radically different from one's own. Students with primary interest and advanced preparation in social sciences encouraged to enroll. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • C228A. Philosophy of Language

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour. Enforced requisite: course 31. Syntax, semantics, pragmatics. Semantical concept of truth, sense and denotation, synonymy and analyticity, modalities and tenses, indirect discourse, indexical terms, semantical paradoxes. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. Concurrently scheduled with course C127A. S/U or letter grading.

  • C228B. Philosophy of Language

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: course 31. Course C228A is not requisite to C228B. Selected topics similar to those considered in course C228A, but at more advanced and technical level. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. Concurrently scheduled with course C127B. S/U or letter grading.

  • C228C. Philosophy of Language

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: course 31. Recommended: course C228A or C228B. Selected topics similar to those considered in course C228B, but with focus on contemporary figures. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. Concurrently scheduled with course C127C. S/U or letter grading.

  • 230. Seminar: Logic

    Units: 4

    Seminar, four hours. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • 231. Seminar: Intensional Logic

    Units: 4

    Seminar, four hours. Topics may include logic of sense and denotation, modal logic, logic of demonstratives, epistemic logic, intensional logic of "Principia Mathematica," possible worlds semantics. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • 232. Philosophy of Science

    Units: 4

    Seminar, three hours. Selected topics in philosophy of science. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • 233. Seminar: Philosophy of Physics

    Units: 4

    Seminar, four hours. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • 234. Topics in Philosophy of Science

    Units: 4

    Seminar, three hours. One or more selected topics in philosophy of science. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. May not be used to satisfy special area requirement. S/U or letter grading.

  • 241. Topics in Political Philosophy

    Units: 4

    Seminar, four hours. Requisites: course 150 or C156 or 157A or 157B or any two philosophy courses. Examination of one or more topics in political philosophy (e.g., justice, democracy, human rights, political obligation, alienation). May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • 244. Topics in Value Theory: Rationality and Action

    Units: 4

    Seminar, three hours. Selected topics on normative issues in practical rationality or philosophy of action. Topics may include moral and practical dilemmas, nature of reasons for action, rationality of morality and prudence, weakness of will, freedom of will, and decision theory. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • C245. History of Ethics: Modern

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Intensive study of Kant's ethical theory. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. May be concurrently scheduled with course C151B. S/U or letter grading.

  • 246. Seminar: Ethical Theory

    Units: 4

    Seminar, four hours. Selected topics. Content varies from term to term. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • C247. Topics in Political Philosophy

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Analysis of some basic concepts in political theory. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. May be concurrently scheduled with course C156. S/U or letter grading.

  • 248. Problems in Moral Philosophy

    Units: 4

    Seminar, four hours. Intensive study of some leading current problems in moral philosophy. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • C253B. Topics in Ethical Theory: Metaethics

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: course 22. Study and analysis of basic concepts, selected problems, and contemporary issues in metaethics. Topics may include analysis of moral language, justification of moral beliefs, moral realism, skepticism, free will, moral motivation, etc. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. May be concurrently scheduled with course C153B. S/U or letter grading.

  • 254. Legal Theory Workshop

    Units: 1 to 8

    Seminar, three hours. Students engage with work in progress on philosophical issues in law of leading scholars from around country. Presentation of works in progress by visiting scholars every two weeks. Study by students of papers to be presented to gain background in relevant topics and to be prepared for speakers' presentations. Presentation of student papers to class for discussion. Substantial analytical paper required. S/U or letter grading.

  • 254A. Legal Theory Workshop

    Units: 3 or 4

    (Formerly numbered M254A.) Seminar, three hours. Course 254A is enforced requisite to 254B. Students engage with work in progress on philosophical issues in law of leading scholars from around country. Presentation of works in progress by visiting scholars every two weeks. Study by students of papers to be presented to gain background in relevant topics and to be prepared for speakers' presentations. Presentation of student papers to class for discussion. Substantial analytical paper required. Concurrently scheduled with Law 555. In Progress grading (credit to be given only on completion of course 254B).

  • 254B. Legal Theory Workshop

    Units: 1 or 2

    Seminar, three hours. Enforced requisite: course 254A. Continuation of course 254A. Students engage with work in progress on philosophical issues in law of leading scholars from around country. Presentation of works in progress by visiting scholars every two weeks. Study by students of papers to be presented to gain background in relevant topics and to be prepared for speakers' presentations. Presentation of student papers to class for discussion. Substantial analytical paper required. Concurrently scheduled with Law 555. S/U or letter grading.

  • 255. Seminar: Aesthetic Theory

    Units: 4

    Seminar, four hours. Selected topics. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • M256. Topics in Legal Philosophy

    Units: 4

    (Same as Law M217.) Lecture, three hours. Examination of topics such as concept of law, nature of justice, problems of punishments, legal reasoning, and obligation to obey the law. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor.

  • M257. Philosophy Legal Theory

    Units: 1 to 8

    (Same as Law M524.) Seminar, three hours. Selected topics in philosophy of law. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • M257A. Philosophy Legal Theory

    Units: 1 to 8

    (Same as Law M524.) Seminar, two hours. Course M257A is enforced requisite to 257B. Selected topics in philosophy of law. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. In Progress grading (credit to be given only on completion of course 257B).

  • 257B. Philosophy Legal Theory

    Units: 1 to 8

    Seminar, two hours. Enforced requisite: course M257A. Continuation of course M257A. Selected topics in philosophy of law. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • 258. Contemporary Philosophy of Law

    Units: 4

    Seminar, three hours. Limited to graduate students. Recent contributions to theoretical literature on contract law. Possible topics include purpose or function of contract law, relationship of contracts to promises, whether fault should play larger (or smaller) role in contract law, remedial approaches to breach including larger role for unjust enrichment, and contract law's treatment of fraud and deception. Readings from legal and philosophical literature. S/U or letter grading.

  • 259. Philosophical Research in Ethics and Value Theory

    Units: 2 to 4

    Seminar, two hours. Preparation: completion of proposition requirement. Presentation of ongoing research by graduate students. Participants make presentations, analyze and discuss presentations of others, and read and discuss philosophical texts related to presentations. Must be taken for 4 units in quarters in which students present their own research. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U grading.

  • 271. Seminar: Topics in Metaphysics and Epistemology

    Units: 4

    Seminar, three hours. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • 272. Topics in Philosophy of Mind and Language

    Units: 4

    Seminar, three hours. One or more selected topics in philosophy of mind and/or language. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. May not be used to satisfy special area requirement. S/U or letter grading.

  • 275. Human Action

    Units: 4

    Preparation: two upper division philosophy courses. Examination of theories, concepts, and problems concerning human actions. Topics may include analysis of intentional actions; determinism and freedom; nature of explanations of intentional actions. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor.

  • 280. 20th-Century Continental Philosophy

    Units: 4

    Seminar, three hours. Selected topics in 20th-century continental European philosophy. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • 281. Seminar: Philosophy of Mind

    Units: 4

    Seminar, three hours. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • 282. Seminar: Metaphysics

    Units: 4

    Seminar, three hours. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • 283. Seminar: Theory of Knowledge

    Units: 4

    Seminar, three hours. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • 284. Seminar: Philosophy of Perception

    Units: 4

    Seminar, three hours. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • 285. Philosophy of Psychoanalysis

    Units: 4

    Seminar, three hours. Examination of topics such as nature and validity of psychoanalytic explanations and interpretations, psychoanalysis and language, metapsychological concepts such as the unconscious, ego, id, superego, defense mechanisms, and psychoanalytic conception of human nature. S/U or letter grading.

  • 286. Philosophy of Psychology

    Units: 4

    Seminar, four hours. Relevance of computer simulation to accounts of thinking and meaning; relations between semantical theory and learning theory; psychological aspects of theory of syntax; behaviorism, functionalism, and alternatives; physiology and psychology. S/U or letter grading.

  • 287. Seminar: Philosophy of Language

    Units: 4

    Seminar, three hours. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • 288. Seminar: Wittgenstein

    Units: 4

    Seminar, three hours. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • 289. Seminar: Philosophy of Religion

    Units: 4

    Seminar, four hours. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • 290. Workshop: Philosophy of Language

    Units: 2 or 4

    Seminar, two hours. Ongoing discussion of current issues in philosophy of language based on contemporary texts and current research. Presentations of ideas by attending faculty and graduate students with open discussion. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U grading.

  • 291. Workshop: Philosophy of Mathematics

    Units: 4

    Seminar, three hours. Ongoing discussion of current issues in philosophy of mathematics based on contemporary texts and current research. Presentations of ideas by attending faculty and graduate students with open discussion. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • 299. Seminar: Philosophical Research

    Units: 4

    Seminar, three hours. Preparation: advancement to candidacy. Presentation of ongoing research by graduate students or faculty members. Participants make presentations, analyze and discuss presentations of others, and read and discuss philosophical texts related to presentations. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U grading.

  • 375. Teaching Apprentice Practicum

    Units: 1 to 4

    Seminar, to be arranged. Preparation: apprentice personnel employment as teaching assistant, associate, or fellow. Teaching apprenticeship under active guidance and supervision of regular faculty member responsible for curriculum and instruction at UCLA. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

  • 495. Teaching College Philosophy

    Units: 2 to 4

    Seminar, to be arranged. Seminars, workshops, and apprentice teaching. Selected topics, including evaluation scales, various teaching strategies and their effects, and other topics in college teaching. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

  • 501. Cooperative Program

    Units: 2 to 8

    Preparation: consent of UCLA graduate adviser and graduate dean, and host campus instructor, department chair, and graduate dean. Used to record enrollment of UCLA students in courses taken under cooperative arrangements with USC. S/U grading.

  • 596. Directed Individual Studies

    Units: 2 to 12

    Tutorial, to be arranged. Properly qualified graduate students who wish to pursue one problem through reading or advanced study may do so if their proposed project is acceptable to one staff member. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

  • 597. Directed Studies for Graduate Examinations

    Units: 2 to 8

    Tutorial, to be arranged. Preparation for comprehensive examination or Ph.D. oral qualifying examinations. S/U grading.

  • 599. Research for Ph.D. Dissertation

    Units: 2 to 12

    Tutorial, to be arranged. Preparation: advancement to Ph.D. candidacy. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.