• 10. Plants and Civilization

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; demonstration, one hour. Designed for nonmajors. Origin of crop plants; man's role in development, distribution, and modification of food, fiber, medicinal, and other plants in relation to their natural history. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 11. Biomedical Research Issues in Minority Communities

    Units: 5

    Discussion, four hours. Limited to 30 students. Discussions and student presentations on biomedical research as it affects minority communities, with emphasis on methodology, design, consequences, and ethics of current research. Discussion leaders provide information on preparation and training for research careers. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 12. Biodiversity and Extinction: Crisis and Conservation

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Examination of ecological and evolutionary principles necessary to understand nature and importance of worldwide environmental crisis. Research by students of specific conservation issues and presentation of results to class. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 13. Evolution of Life

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Not open to life sciences majors. Limited to 100 students. Introduction to biology within framework of evolutionary theory. Relationships of evolutionary thought to other areas of knowledge and society. Natural selection and origin of variation examined in context of genetics, molecular biology, physiology, phylogeny, population dynamics, behavior, and ecology. Emphasis on critical role of historical processes. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 17. Evolution for Everyone

    Units: 5

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, two hours. Exploration in detail of Darwinian natural selection, with emphasis on evidence and implications for modern problems people and societies face, including antibiotic resistance, insect resistance to pesticides, and coevolution of pollinators with crop plants. Nature of science in context of questions about ongoing real-time Darwinian processes. Letter grading.

  • 18. Why Ecology Matters: Science Behind Environmental Issues

    Units: 5

    Lecture, three hours; laboratory, two hours. Basic ecological concepts, scientific method, and ecological basis for local and global environmental issues. Major challenges to be faced in this century, including need to find interdisciplinary and collaborative solutions to world's worsening environmental problems (e.g., global climate change, biodiversity loss, deforestation, pollution, declining water resources, declining fisheries). Environmental literacy to equip students to become leaders in growing green economy and to help forge solutions to current and future environmental crises that threaten natural resource base. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 19. Fiat Lux Freshman Seminars

    Units: 1

    Seminar, one hour. Discussion of and critical thinking about topics of current intellectual importance, taught by faculty members in their areas of expertise and illuminating many paths of discovery at UCLA. P/NP grading.

  • 21. Field Biology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, two hours, or field trips, three to four hours. Recommended preparation: Life Sciences 15. Not open for credit to students with credit for course 122 or Life Sciences 1. Introduction to natural history of Western North America, especially Southern California. Classification, distribution, and ecology of common plants and animals. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 25. Living Ocean

    Units: 5

    Lecture, three hours; laboratory, one hour; field trips, three hours. Not open for credit to students with credit for Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences 15. Physical and chemical processes that take place in oceans, with emphasis on their effects on organisms. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 50. Desert Life

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; laboratory, two hours. Introduction to fundamental structural, physiological, and behavioral features of desert organisms, with special emphasis on deserts of Western North America. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 89. Honors Seminars

    Units: 1

    Seminar, three hours. Limited to 20 students. Designed as adjunct to lower division lecture course. Exploration of topics in greater depth through supplemental readings, papers, or other activities and led by lecture course instructor. May be applied toward honors credit for eligible students. Honors content noted on transcript. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 89HC. Honors Contracts

    Units: 1

    Tutorial, three hours. Limited to students in College Honors Program. Designed as adjunct to lower division lecture course. Individual study with lecture course instructor to explore topics in greater depth through supplemental readings, papers, or other activities. May be repeated for maximum of 4 units. Individual honors contract required. Honors content noted on transcript. Letter grading.

  • 95. Lower Division Internship in Biology

    Units: 4

    Tutorial/fieldwork, three hours per week per unit. Internship course for lower division students to be supervised by Center for Community Learning, fieldwork site, and faculty adviser. Consult Undergraduate Office for more information. May be repeated twice. Individual contract with supervising faculty member required. P/NP grading.

  • 96. Communicating Science: Bringing Complex Concepts to Life

    Units: 2

    (Formerly numbered 96A.) Seminar, three hours. Limited to Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department majors. Development of tools for research, integrating and presenting complex scientific concepts concisely and effectively. Basic animation techniques and work in groups to illustrate life sciences concepts. How to engage audiences and convey clear messages. Letter grading.

  • 97. Variable Topics in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Units: 1 to 4

    Seminar, three to 12 hours. Current issues in research in ecology and evolutionary biology. Consult "Schedule of Classes" for topics and instructors. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 97XA. PEERS Freshman Seminar: Succeeding in Science

    Units: 1

    (Formerly numbered 97X.) Seminar, one hour. Limited to students in Program for Excellence in Education and Research in Sciences (PEERS). Series of lectures, workshops, and discussions to enhance student success in sciences by developing critical academic survival skills, acquainting students with practice of science, and highlighting opportunities available to participate in research as undergraduate students. P/NP grading.

  • 97XB. PEERS Sophomore Seminar: Pathways in Science

    Units: 1

    Seminar, one hour. Limited to students in Program for Excellence in Education and Research in Sciences (PEERS). Series of lectures and workshops to enhance student success in sciences by acquainting students with practice of science, opportunities available to participate in research as undergraduate students, and careers available to students with science degrees. P/NP grading.

  • 97XC. AAP Freshman Seminar: Succeeding in Science Majors and Careers

    Units: 1

    Seminar, one hour. Limited to science majors in Academic Advancement Program (AAP) who took Mathematics 1 in fall term. Series of lectures, workshops, and discussions designed to enhance student success in sciences by developing critical academic survival skills, acquainting students with campus resources, introducing students to practice of science, and highlighting opportunities available to participate in research as undergraduate students. P/NP grading.

  • 99. Student Research Program

    Units: 1 to 2

    Tutorial (supervised research or other scholarly work), three hours per week per unit. Entry-level research for lower division students under guidance of faculty mentor. Students must be in good academic standing and enrolled in minimum of 12 units (excluding this course). Individual contract required; consult Undergraduate Research Center. May be repeated. P/NP grading.

  • 100. Introduction to Ecology and Behavior

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: Life Sciences 1 or 7B. Not open for credit to students with credit for course 118, C119A, C119B, 122 through C126, 129, 132 through 134B, 136, or 151B. Introduction to methods and topics in ecology and behavior. Growth and regulation of populations, organization of communities and ecosystems, biogeography, and behaviors animals use to find food, choose mates, and interact in social groups. Letter grading.

  • 100L. Introduction to Ecology and Behavior Laboratory

    Units: 4

    Laboratory, four hours. Requisites: course 100 (may be taken concurrently), Life Sciences 1 or 7B. Introduction to research methods in ecology and behavior, resulting in independent research proposals and to gain understanding of scientific method, critical evaluation of research papers, and development of scientific writing skills. Involves work outside and off-campus meetings. To apply this course to the Biology upper division major laboratory requirement, the corresponding lecture course must be completed with a passing grade. Letter grading.

  • 101. Marine Botany

    Units: 6

    Lecture, four hours; laboratory, six hours; three to four field trips. Requisite: Life Sciences 1 or 7B. Introduction to biology and ecology of marine plants, including algae, sea grasses, and mangroves, with focus on form and function of marine plants and their ecological role in different marine habitats and ecosystems. Letter grading.

  • 102. Biology of Marine Invertebrates

    Units: 4

    Five-week intensive course. Lecture, five hours; laboratory, 15 hours. Requisite: Life Sciences 1. Morphology, systematics, life histories and natural history, ecology, behavior, and physiology of marine invertebrates. Given off campus at marine science center. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 103. Plant Diversity and Evolution

    Units: 5

    Lecture, three hours; laboratory, three hours; field trip. Requisites: Life Sciences 1, 4. Introduction to green plant tree of life, with emphasis on using phylogenetic perspective to examine major transitions in plant evolution, including evolution and diversification of land plants, vascular plants, seed plants, and currently ecologically dominant flowering plants. Introduction to phylogenetics, providing overview of theory and methodology to reconstruct and use phylogenetic trees to study organismal evolution. Exploration of 700 million years of plant evolution, with emphasis on morphological, functional, ecological, and biogeographical perspectives. Letter grading.

  • 105. Biology of Invertebrates

    Units: 6

    Lecture, three hours; laboratory/field trips, six hours. Requisite: Life Sciences 1. Introduction to systematics, evolution, natural history, morphology, and physiology of invertebrates. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 106. Experimental Marine Invertebrate Biology

    Units: 4 or 6

    Lecture, two hours; laboratory, 12 hours. Requisites: course 105, Physiological Science 166 (may be taken concurrently). Offered either as 6-unit quarter-long course or as 4-unit Marine Biology Quarter course. Advanced course of natural history, physiology, biochemistry of invertebrates, with emphasis on independent laboratory and field investigations. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 107. Evolution, Development, and Function of Invertebrate Animals

    Units: 6

    Lecture, three hours; laboratory, three hours; three weekend field trips. Requisite: course 105 or completion of Marine Biology Quarter. Advanced invertebrate biology course exploring evolutionary relationship of animal groups and evolution of marine species, comparative development and developmental genetics of invertebrate form, and form and function as they relate to marine invertebrates. Letter grading.

  • 109. Introduction to Marine Science

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: Life Sciences 1 or 7B. Strongly recommended for prospective Marine Biology Quarter students. Introduction to physical and biological world of 70 percent of planet: oceans. Designed to be integrative, with focus on geological evolution of seas, physical and chemical properties of water, and how these abiotic processes shape ecology and evolution of marine organisms and environments. Letter grading.

  • 109L. Introduction to Marine Science Laboratory

    Units: 4

    Laboratory, three hours; four field trips. Requisites: course 109 (may be taken concurrently), Life Sciences 1 or 7B. Introduction to marine environments and methods used to study them. Exploration of variety of concepts in marine science, ranging from oceanography to behavior, primary productivity, and marine biodiversity, with emphasis on experimental design and scientific writing. To apply this course to the Biology upper division major laboratory requirement, the corresponding lecture course must be completed with a passing grade. Letter grading.

  • 110. Vertebrate Morphology

    Units: 6

    Lecture, three hours; laboratory, five hours. Requisites: Life Sciences 1, 2, 3, 4, 23L. Study of vertebrate morphology, function, and evolution from viewpoint of comparative anatomy of adult forms, biomechanics, development, and paleontology. Laboratory study of selected vertebrates. Letter grading.

  • 111. Biology of Vertebrates

    Units: 5

    Lecture, three hours; laboratory, three hours; four one- to two-day field trips. Requisite: Life Sciences 1 or 7B. Adaptations, behavior, and ecology of vertebrates. Letter grading.

  • 112. Ichthyology

    Units: 6

    Lecture, three hours; laboratory, six hours; field trips. Requisite: Life Sciences 1 or 7B. Highly recommended: courses 110, 111. Biology of freshwater and marine fishes, with emphasis on their evolution, systematics, morphology, zoogeography, and ecology. Field trips to examine fishes of Southern California shoreline, tidepools, and coastal streams. Letter grading.

  • 113A. Herpetology

    Units: 5

    Lecture, three hours; laboratory, three hours; field trips, three and one half days per term. Requisite: Life Sciences 1. Recommended: course 100. Vertebrate zoology course restricted to biology of reptiles and amphibians of world, covering current systematics, ecology, behavior, morphology, and physiology of these animals. Letter grading.

  • 113B. Field Herpetology

    Units: 8

    Requisite: Life Sciences 1. Recommended: courses 100, 111. Two weeks of off-campus research projects followed by two-week lecture course and offered only as part of Field Biology Quarter. Biology, particularly ecology and behavior, of reptiles and amphibians in their natural habitat. Students carry out supervised research projects, then write up and orally present their results in seminar fashion. Letter grading.

  • 114A. Ornithology

    Units: 5

    Lecture, three hours; laboratory/field trips, three hours. Requisite: Life Sciences 1. Recommended: course 100. Systematics, distribution, physiology, behavior, and ecology of birds. Letter grading.

  • 114B. Field Ornithology

    Units: 8

    Requisite: Life Sciences 1. Recommended: course 100. Two to three weeks of off-campus research projects followed by lecture course and offered only as part of Field Biology Quarter. Biology, particularly ecology and behavior, of birds in their natural habitat. Letter grading.

  • 115. Mammalogy

    Units: 5

    Lecture, three hours; laboratory, three hours. Requisite: Life Sciences 1 or 7B. Topics in mammalian biology, including evolution, ecology, behavior, functional morphology, systematics, physiology, and biogeography. Letter grading.

  • 116. Conservation Biology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, two hours. Requisite: Life Sciences 1 or 7B. Recommended: course 100. Not open for credit to students with credit for Environment 121. Study of ecological and evolutionary principles as they apply to preservation of genetic, species, and ecosystem diversity. Discussion sections focus on interactions of science, policy, and economics in conserving biodiversity. Oral and written student presentation on specific conservation issues. Letter grading.

  • 117. Evolution of Vertebrates

    Units: 5

    Lecture, three hours; laboratory, three hours. Requisite: course 110. Recommended: one general geology course. Fossil record of evolution of vertebrates, with emphasis on paleobiology and morphology of tetrapods. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 118. Plant Adaptations

    Units: 8

    Lecture, one hour; field trip, 10 hours. Requisite: course 100. Five-week course offered only as part of Field Biology Quarter. Field-oriented introduction to mechanisms by which vascular plants adapt themselves to their abiotic and biotic environments using community, population, and ecophysiological levels of integration. Letter grading.

  • C119A. Mathematical and Computational Modeling in Ecology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Enforced requisite: Life Sciences 30B or Mathematics 3B or 31A. Recommended: courses 100, 122, Life Sciences 1, Mathematics 3C. Introduction to modeling dynamics of ecological systems, including formulation and analysis of mathematical models, basic techniques of scientific programming, probability and stochastic modeling, and methods to relate models to data. Examples from ecology but techniques and principles applicable throughout life and physical sciences. Concurrently scheduled with course C219A. P/NP or letter grading.

  • C119B. Modeling in Ecological Research

    Units: 4

    Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Requisite: course C119A. Advanced techniques in mathematical and computational modeling of ecological dynamics and other population dynamic problems. Independent research projects developed by students. Topics include model formulation, stochastic models, fitting models to data, sensitivity analysis, presentation of model results, and other topics from current literature. Concurrently scheduled with course C219B. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 120. Evolution

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, two hours. Requisites: Life Sciences 1, 2, 3, 4, 23L, and Mathematics 3A and 3B (or 31A or Life Sciences 30B). Not open for credit to students with credit for course 185. Designed for departmental majors specializing in environmental and population biology. Introduction to mechanics and processes of evolution, with emphasis on natural selection, population genetics, speciation, evolutionary rates, and patterns of adaptation. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 121. Molecular Evolution

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisites: Life Sciences 3, 4, 23L. Molecular biology, with emphasis on evolutionary aspects. DNA replication, RNA transcription, protein synthesis, gene expression, and molecular evolution. Letter grading.

  • 122. Ecology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, two hours. Requisites: course 100, Life Sciences 1 or 7B, Mathematics 3B or 31A or Life Sciences 30B. Highly recommended: Mathematics 31B, 32A. Designed for departmental majors specializing in environmental and population biology. Introduction to population and community ecology, with emphasis on growth and distributions of populations, interactions between species, and structure, dynamics, and functions of communities and ecosystems. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 123A. Field Marine Ecology

    Units: 4 or 8

    Lecture, five hours; laboratory, 15 hours. Recommended requisites: courses 100, 122. Offered either as 4- or 8-unit five-week intensive course given off campus as part of Marine Biology Quarter that is in residence at research station located outside continental U.S. Survey of current topics in marine ecology, including analysis of primary research literature combined with field study of ecology of marine organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Original research project required. Letter grading.

  • 123B. Field Marine Ecology

    Units: 4 or 8

    Lecture, five hours; laboratory, 15 hours. Recommended requisites: courses 100, 122. Offered either as 4- or 8-unit five-week intensive course given off campus as part of Marine Biology Quarter that is in residence at research station located within U.S., including Alaska and Hawaii. Survey of current topics in marine ecology, including analysis of primary research literature combined with field study of ecology of marine organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Original research project required. Letter grading.

  • 124A. Field Ecology

    Units: 4 or 8

    Lecture, five hours; laboratory or field trip, 15 hours. Enforced requisites: course 100, Life Sciences 1. Recommended: courses 111, 120, 122. Offered as part of Field Biology Quarter that is in residence at research station located outside continental U.S. for part of or for duration of term. Field and laboratory research in ecology; collection, analysis, and write-up of numerical data, with emphasis on design and execution of field studies. Letter grading.

  • 124B. Field Ecology

    Units: 4 or 8

    Lecture, five hours; laboratory or field trip, 15 hours. Enforced requisites: course 100, Life Sciences 1. Recommended: courses 111, 120, 122. Offered as part of Field Biology Quarter that is in residence at research station located within U.S., including Alaska and Hawaii, for part of or for duration of term. Field and laboratory research in ecology; collection, analysis, and write-up of numerical data, with emphasis on design and execution of field studies. Letter grading.

  • 125. Tropical Animal Communication

    Units: 4 or 8

    Requisites: course 100, Life Sciences 1. Offered either as 4-unit quarter-long course or as 8-unit Field Biology Quarter course. Four-unit course has lecture, three hours; discussion, two hours. Animal communication behavior, tropical vertebrate biology, and evolution of information processing systems. Eight-unit course covers same basic lecture material in five or six intensive weeks, followed by extended field trips where students do individual projects in animal communication. Letter grading.

  • C126. Behavioral Ecology

    Units: 4 or 8

    (Formerly numbered 126.) Requisites: course 100, Life Sciences 1, Mathematics 3C or 32A or Life Sciences 30B. Recommended: course 129. Offered either as 4-unit quarter-long course or as 8-unit Field Biology Quarter course. Four-unit course has lecture, three hours; discussion, two hours. Evolutionary perspective of behavioral ecology, with extended consideration of selfish DNA, conflict with genomes, natural selection and coevolution, kin selection and diversity in group functioning and cooperation, social learning, game theory and alternative life histories, and human behavioral ecology. Eight-unit course covers several major areas in animal behavior more broadly, including foraging, sexual selection and predator-prey interactions in five intensive weeks, followed by extended field trip where students do individual projects. Concurrently scheduled with course C242. Letter grading.

  • M127. Soils and Environment

    Units: 4

    (Same as Environment M127 and Geography M127.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; field trips. General treatment of soils and environmental implications: soil development, morphology, and worldwide distribution of soil orders; physical, chemical, hydrologic, and biological properties; water use, erosion, and pollution; management of soils as related to plant growth and distribution. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 128. Plant Physiological Ecology

    Units: 5

    Lecture, three hours; laboratory, three hours; one two-day field trip. Requisites: Life Sciences 1, Physics 1C and 4BL, or 6C or 6CH. Study of plant/environment interactions under natural conditions. Transpiration and photosynthesis, leaf temperatures, and water movement in soil/plant/atmosphere continuum. Letter grading.

  • 129. Animal Behavior

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, two hours. Requisites: course 100, Life Sciences 1. Introduction to behavioral ecology. Methods and results of evolutionary approaches to study of animal behavior, including foraging strategies, social competition, sexual selection, mating systems, cooperation, and social organization. Letter grading.

  • 130. Principles of Systematic Biology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, two hours. Requisite: Life Sciences 1. Recommended: courses 120, 135. Concepts, principles, and methods of comparative biology as they apply to inference of evolutionary relationships among organisms. Principles and application of biological nomenclature. Letter grading.

  • M131. Ecosystem Ecology

    Units: 4

    (Same as Geography M117.) Lecture, three hours; field trips. Requisite: Geography 1 or Life Sciences 2 or 7C. Designed for juniors/seniors. Development of principles of ecosystem ecology, with focus on understanding links between ecosystem structure and function. Emphasis on energy and water balances, nutrient cycling, plant-soil-microbe interactions, landscape heterogeneity, and human disturbance to ecosystems. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 132. Field Behavioral Ecology

    Units: 8

    Lecture, two hours; laboratory/field trip, 10 hours. Requisites: course 100, Life Sciences 1. Recommended: course 129. Five-week course offered only as part of Field Biology Quarter. Field research in behavioral ecology, emphasizing animal communication. Design and execution of individual and small group field projects during extended field trip. Letter grading.

  • 133. Elements of Theoretical and Computational Biology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; laboratory, two hours. Requisites: Life Sciences 1, 2, 3, 4, 23L, and Mathematics 3A, 3B, and 3C, or 31A and 31B, or Life Sciences 30B. Strongly recommended: elementary statistics course. Introduction of basic core mathematical ideas and models necessary to understand contemporary ecology and evolutionary biology. Population ecology and growth, community ecology, population genetics, natural selection. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 134B. Field Physiological Ecology of Desert Animals

    Units: 8

    Field course. Requisite: Life Sciences 1. Recommended: course 100. Two weeks of off-campus research projects with two-week lecture course (four hours per day) and offered only as part of Field Biology Quarter. Consideration of physiological, behavioral, morphological, and ecological mechanisms desert animals use to enhance their survival in arid habitat. Students carry out supervised research projects, then write up and orally present their results in seminar fashion. Letter grading.

  • C135. Population Genetics

    Units: 4

    (Formerly numbered 135.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Enforced requisite: Life Sciences 4. Strongly recommended: course 100, Mathematics 31A, and 31B or Life Sciences 30B. Basic principles of genetics of population, dealing with genetic structure of natural populations and mechanisms of evolution. Equilibrium conditions and forces altering gene frequencies, polygenic inheritance, molecular evolution, and methods of quantitative genetics. Concurrently scheduled with course C235. Letter grading.

  • 136. Ecology, Behavior, and Evolution Laboratory

    Units: 6

    Lecture, four hours; laboratory, eight hours; field trips, six and one half days per term. Requisites: course 100, Life Sciences 1, Mathematics 3C or 32A. Strongly recommended: course 120 or 122 or 129. Designed for Ecology, Behavior, and Evolution majors. Laboratory and field exercises on population genetics, growth, and regulation; competition and predation; behavioral interactions; species' diversity and distribution. Methodological aspects from theoretical models and computer simulations to laboratory and garden experiments to fieldwork. Mandatory field trips, including two weekend trips. Letter grading.

  • 137. Chemical Communication

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisites: Chemistry 14A, 14B, 14BL, 14C, 14CL, and 14D, or 20A, 20B, 20L, 30A, 30AL, 30B, and 30BL, Life Sciences 1, 2, 3, 23L. Chemical signals are most important means by which organisms communicate. Exploration of how chemical signals are produced, transported, and influence behavior of microbes, plants, and animals. Synthetic approach, with emphasis on applications to cell biology, physiology, and ecology. P/NP or letter grading.

  • M139. Introduction to Chemical Oceanography

    Units: 4

    (Same as Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences M105.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Introductory course for physical sciences, life sciences, and engineering majors interested in oceanic environment. Chemical composition of oceans and nature of physical, chemical, and biological processes governing this composition in past and present. Cycles of major and minor oceanic constituents, with focus on those that are most important for life (i.e., carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon, and oxygen). Investigation of primary production, export production, remineralization, diagenesis, air-sea gas exchange processes. Letter grading.

  • 142. Aquatic Communities

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: Life Sciences 1 or 7B. Overview of species and communities in marine and freshwater environments. Exploration of interactions of physical and biological factors that shape communities and how scientists test hypotheses. Emphasis on critical reading of primary literature. Letter grading.

  • M145. Advanced Paleontology

    Units: 4

    (Same as Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences M118.) Lecture, three hours. Requisite: course 110 or 117 or Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences 116. Consideration of major factors that have influenced history of life, including analytical approaches to analyzing patterns in fossil record, nature of rock record, and contribution of data from stable isotopes, functional morphology, phylogenetics, and developmental biology. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 147. Biological Oceanography

    Units: 4

    Five-week intensive course. Lecture, five hours; laboratory, 15 hours. Requisites: Chemistry 14A, 14B, and 14BL, or 20A, 20B, 20L, and 30AL, Life Sciences 1, 3, 23L. Lectures include physical, chemical, and biological factors affecting abundance and distribution of organisms in marine environment. Laboratory includes experimental studies of local marine organisms, with emphasis on primary and secondary production and nutrient flux. Letter grading.

  • 148. Biology of Marine Plants

    Units: 4

    Five-week intensive course. Lecture, five hours; laboratory, 15 hours. Requisites: Chemistry 14A, 14B, and 14BL, or 20A, 20B, 20L, and 30AL, Life Sciences 1, 3, 23L. Introduction to general biology of marine algae, including basics of structure reproduction, life histories, systematics, and introduction to physiology and ecology of marine algae. Techniques in culture and laboratory investigation and utilization of algae. Given off campus at marine science center. Letter grading.

  • 151A. Tropical Ecology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, one hour; discussion, two hours. Requisite: Life Sciences 1. Broad introduction to biodiversity, community structure, and dynamics and ecosystem function of range of tropical forest habitats. Discussion of such themes as biogeography, forest structure, plant growth forms, animal communities, herbivory, forest dynamics, and disturbance regimes. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 151B. Field Tropical Ecology

    Units: 8

    Lecture, three hours; fieldwork, five hours. Requisites: course 100, Life Sciences 1. Two weeks of off-campus research projects followed by two-week lecture course and offered only as part of Field Biology Quarter. Introduction to biodiversity, community structure, and dynamics and ecosystem function in tropical forest habitat. Letter grading.

  • 152. World Vegetation Ecology and Ecophysiology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Enforced requisite: Life Sciences 1. Diversity of physiological and ecological adaptations in biomes of world, explaining distribution and dynamics of world vegetation types. Focus on processes across scales from cells to ecosystem to globe, instrumentation for environmental and ecophysiological measurements, and experiments used to make discoveries about plant adaptation. Letter grading.

  • 153. Physics and Chemistry of Biotic Environments

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisites: Chemistry 14A, 14B, and 14BL (or 20A, 20B, and 20L), Life Sciences 1. Recommended: Life Sciences 2, 3, 4, 23L, Physics 6A. Chemical and physical principles that are critical to functional responses by organisms to their habitats. Focus is integrative, providing comprehensive training in basic sciences of physics and chemistry as applied to environmental processes, and consequences of these processes for individual performance, populations, and communities. Covers variety of topics in applied chemistry, including proton pumps, carbonate biogeochemistry and ocean acidification, and allometric scaling of metabolism and effects of temperature on physiological function. Fundamentals of boundary-layer physics and their role in organism's life history. Physics as natural life process, including how organisms are mechanically structures to avoid, resist, or comply to fluid (air and water) motion. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 154. California Ecosystems

    Units: 5

    Lecture, three hours; laboratory or field trip, four hours. Requisite: Life Sciences 1. Recommended: course 100. Introduction to structure, biodiversity, and dynamics of California ecosystems, with focus on Southern California, and impact of human activities on these systems. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 155. Community Ecology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Enforced requisite: Life Sciences 1. Recommended: course 100 or 122. Community ecology is study of biodiversity in ecological context: structure and dynamics of natural species assemblages in space and time, and ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that determine which species are present or absent from particular assemblages. Examination of existing theories of community organization and evidence, both observational and experimental, bearing on these theories. Consideration of diverse array of communities -- plant, animal, microbial, terrestrial, and marine -- to give appreciation of extraordinary natural history and diversity of life on Earth as it exists in its living ecological context. Discussion of how ecological communities are responding now and will respond in future to anticipated global change, and conservation implications of these changes. Letter grading.

  • 160. Introduction to Plant Biology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Not open for credit to students with credit for course 162. Introduction to aspects of plant biology. Topics include plant body, reproduction, plant diversity, gene expression, and basic plant function. Letter grading.

  • 161. Plant Ecology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, two and one half hours; discussion, one hour. Requisite: Life Sciences 1 or 7B. Introduction to ecology of terrestrial plants, covering individuals, populations, communities, and global processes. Topics include plant form and function, seed dormancy and population dynamics, life histories, disturbance and succession, community structure and dynamics, and global change. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 162. Plant Physiology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisites: Life Sciences 1, 2, 3, 23L. Basic aspects of plant function, including photochemical, biochemical, and physiological aspects of photosynthesis. Carbon and nitrogen metabolism and its regulation; organellar interactions and compartmentation. Water relations, ion transport, flowering, hormone action, and plant responses to stress. Letter grading.

  • 162L. Plant Physiology and Ecophysiology Laboratory

    Units: 4

    Laboratory, 12 hours. Requisites: Life Sciences 1, 2, 3, 23L. Corequisite or requisite: course 152 or 162. Focus on whole-plant physiology and ecophysiology from biochemical and molecular processes to whole-plant function and field performance to gain understanding and appreciation of plant function, including dynamic processes of growth, development, and reproduction. Exercises provide training in approaches and instrumentation such that students become scientists, applying physiological techniques to answer questions on plant function, including use of programs such as FunAnatomy (plant anatomy) and FastPlant (growing experiment). To apply this course to the Biology upper division major laboratory requirement, the corresponding lecture course must be completed with a passing grade. Letter grading.

  • 163. Biology of Marine Tetrapods

    Units: 4

    Lecture, five hours; laboratory and fieldwork, 15 hours. Requisites: Chemistry 14A, 14B, and 14BL, or 20A, 20B, 20L, and 30AL, Life Sciences 1, 3, 23L. Highly recommended: course 111. Five-week intensive course offered only as part of Marine Biology Quarter. Survey of higher vertebrates living in marine habitats, including estuarine amphibians, marine reptiles, seabirds, and marine mammals. Laboratory emphasizes observational and experimental approaches to study of morphology, systematics, ecology, and behavior of local marine birds and mammals. Given off campus at marine science center. Letter grading.

  • 164. Field Biology of Marine Fishes

    Units: 4

    Lecture, five hours; laboratory, 15 hours. Requisite: Life Sciences 1. Recommended: Mathematics 3A, 3B, 3C. Five-week intensive course offered only as part of Marine Biology Quarter. Selected aspects of natural history, ecology, and behavior of diverse assemblage of local marine fishes. Fieldwork strongly emphasized. Given off campus at marine science center. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 165. Ecological Physiology of Marine Vertebrates

    Units: 4

    Lecture, five hours; laboratory, 15 hours. Requisites: Chemistry 14B and 14BL, or 20B and 30AL, Life Sciences 1, 3, 23L. Recommended: Life Sciences 30B or Mathematics 3C or 32A, and Physics 1C and 4BL, or 6C or 6CH. Five-week intensive course offered only as part of Marine Biology Quarter. Introduction to physiological adaptations of marine vertebrates to major physicochemical variables in world oceans and to major marine habitats. Given off campus at marine science center. Letter grading.

  • 166. Biology of Marine-Land Interface

    Units: 4

    Lecture, five hours; fieldwork, 15 hours. Enforced requisites: courses 109, 109L, Chemistry 14A, 14B, 14BL (or 20A, 20B, 20L), Life Sciences 1, Physics 6A, Statistics 13. Recommended: Life Sciences 2, 3, 4. Land-sea interface is one of most biologically rich, yet challenging habitats on Earth. Organisms must contend with wide range of environmental conditions, including extreme variations in temperature, oxygen, pH, ultraviolet radiation, osmotic stress, and water availability. These habitats are among best natural laboratories for investigating patterns and processes of organism-environment interactions. Basic training in characterization of physical and chemical environmental features to establish basic tenets of organismal performance, as well as population and community dynamics in response to extreme environmental challenges. Foraging of critical new linkages between chemistry, physics, and biology through lecture, laboratory, and field investigations. Offered as part of Marine Biology Quarter. Letter grading.

  • 170. Animal Environmental Physiology

    Units: 6

    Lecture, three hours; laboratory, six hours. Requisites: Chemistry 14D, or 30B and 30BL, Life Sciences 1, 2, 3, 4, 23L, Mathematics 3C or 32A or Life Sciences 30B, Physics 1C and 4BL, or 6C or 6CH. Not open for credit to students with credit for Physiological Science 166. Designed for Ecology, Behavior, and Evolution majors. Introduction to physiology (function) of animal organs and organ systems, with emphasis on environmental interactions and ecological adaptations. Letter grading.

  • C172. Advanced Statistics in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, two hours; laboratory, two hours. Overview of and application of advanced statistical methods that go beyond linear models and mean comparison, including bootstrapping, permutations, Bayesian statistics, mixed models, clustering, and network analysis. At course end students should be able to explain which statistical approaches are appropriate for different types of research questions and critically evaluate their outputs. All statistical analysis conducted in R. Concurrently scheduled with course C202. P/NP or letter grading.

  • CM173. Earth Process and Evolutionary History

    Units: 4

    (Formerly numbered C173.) (Same as Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences CM173.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; laboratory, two hours. Enforced requisites: Chemistry 14A, 14B (or 20A, 20B), Life Sciences 1, 2, 3, 4. Recommended: one course from Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences M100, 101, 102, 103, M105, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology 109, 116, 120, 121, 122, M131, 135, 142, 152, 154, Geography 100, 101, or 103. Exploration of relationship between physical processes affecting surface of Earth, such as tectonics and climate, and biological evolution. Geologic history of Earth from its formation and history of scientific advancement. Changes through time in Earth/atmosphere/ocean system discussed in terms of their effects on biological process and biodiversity. Climate issues considered in this historical context of global process. Modern anthropogenic climate change placed in context of geologic record of climate change. Concurrently scheduled with course CM228. P/NP or letter grading.

  • CM173. Earth Process and Evolutionary History (Effective Winter 2018 )

    Units: 6

    (Formerly numbered C173.) (Same as Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences CM173.) Lecture, four hours; laboratory, three hours. Requisites: Chemistry 14A, 14B (or 20A, 20B), Life Sciences 1, 2, 3, and 4, or 7A, 7B, and 7C (or 7A and introductory course in geology). Exploration of relationship between physical processes, such as tectonics and climate, and how they affect surface and impact biology of Earth. Study of evolution of universe, Earth, and life, with integration of history of science, including Darwinian evolution and plate tectonics revolutions. Study of formation of matter offers tools to understand geologic process of climate and ecology of Earth. Past climate change to examine expected future human-influenced climate. Consideration of major events in history of life on Earth. Data and methods from geology, genetics, and geochemistry are integrated to reconstruct past events. This reveals how Earth processes shaped life and how life shaped Earth. Concurrently scheduled with course CM228. Letter grading.

  • C174. Comparative Biology and Macroevolution

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; laboratory, three hours. Requisite: Life Sciences 1. Recommended: one introductory statistics course. Modern comparative biology provides framework for studying broad questions in evolution -- How do body shapes evolve? What are dynamics of evolutionary arms race? Why are there so many species in tropics? Why are there so many beetles and so few crocodiles? Did dinosaurs put brakes on diversification of mammals? Examination of why tree of life is essential to understanding patterns of biological diversity and how phylogenetic comparative methods are used to test macroevolutionary hypotheses. Concurrently scheduled with course C230. Letter grading.

  • 175. Evolutionary Dynamics of Sex

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Enforced requisite: Life Sciences 1. Fitness dynamics of reproduction when females and males are in conflict over reproductive decisions, with focus on animals with human examples as appropriate. Emphasis on natural selection thinking, sexual selection, and origins of sexual conflict, including Fisherian sex allocation, evolution of manipulation through deceptive communication, and theory of Darwinian sexual conflict. Letter grading.

  • 176. Ecological Ethics

    Units: 4

    Seminar, four hours. Requisite: Life Sciences 1 or 7B. Debates and discussions on current ethical considerations relevant to fields of ecology, evolution, conservation, and behavior. Letter grading.

  • C177. Practical Computing for Evolutionary Biologists and Ecologists

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; laboratory, two hours. Enforced requisite: Life Sciences 1. Introduction to fundamental skills needed for manipulation, analysis, and visualization of large data sets. Basic programming and scripting in Python as well as working in shell, regular expressions, and related topics. Concurrently scheduled with course C234. Letter grading.

  • M178. Computational Systems Biology: Modeling and Simulation of Biological Systems

    Units: 5

    (Same as Bioengineering CM186, Computational and Systems Biology M186, and Computer Science CM186.) Lecture, four hours; laboratory, three hours; outside study, eight hours. Corequisite: Electrical Engineering 102. Dynamic biosystems modeling and computer simulation methods for studying biological/biomedical processes and systems at multiple levels of organization. Control system, multicompartmental, predator-prey, pharmacokinetic (PK), pharmacodynamic (PD), and other structural modeling methods applied to life sciences problems at molecular, cellular (biochemical pathways/networks), organ, and organismic levels. Both theory- and data-driven modeling, with focus on translating biomodeling goals and data into mathematics models and implementing them for simulation and analysis. Basics of numerical simulation algorithms, with modeling software exercises in class and PC laboratory assignments. Letter grading.

  • C179. Communicating Science to Informal Audiences

    Units: 5

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; laboratory or fieldwork, two hours. Enforced requisite: one course from course 25, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences M10, Chemistry 2, 14A, 20A, Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences 1, 15, Environment M10, or Life Sciences 1. Designed for juniors/seniors. Combined instruction in inquiry-based teaching methods and learning pedagogy, with six weeks of supervised teaching experience at Santa Monica Pier Aquarium. Students practice communicating scientific knowledge and receive mentoring on how to improve their presentations to develop ocean science literacy at all levels and to encourage broad public understanding of science and environmental stewardship. Need for young scientists to learn how to communicate about their science to audiences is especially critical when considering that Americans are expected to comprehend and respond to increasingly complex issues, such as global climate change, with limited understanding of how natural world works. Concurrently scheduled with course C237. Letter grading.

  • 180A. Seminar: Biology and Society

    Units: 2

    Seminar, two hours. Investigations and discussions of current socially important issues involving substantial biological considerations, either or both as background for policy and as consequences of policy. May be repeated once for credit with instructor change. Letter grading.

  • 180B. Seminar: Biology and Society

    Units: 4

    Seminar, four hours. Investigations and discussions of current socially important issues involving substantial biological considerations, either or both as background for policy and as consequences of policy. May be repeated once for credit with instructor change. Letter grading.

  • 181. Parasitology

    Units: 6

    Lecture, three hours; laboratory, six hours. Requisites: Life Sciences 1, 3, 23L. Introduction to principles, biology, and evolution of infectiousness, symbiosis, and parasitism, emphasizing protozoan and helminth parasites, including those of man. Letter grading.

  • 182. Marine Parasitology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, five hours; laboratory, 15 hours. Requisite: Life Sciences 1. Recommended: courses 112, 181. Five-week intensive course offered only as part of Marine Biology Quarter. Introduction to natural history and ecology of host-parasite interaction involving intertidal fish hosts. Laboratory includes collection and preparation techniques. Given off-campus at marine science center. Letter grading.

  • 185. Evolutionary Medicine

    Units: 4

    Lecture, two and one half hours; discussion, one hour. Enforced requisite: Life Sciences 1. Not open for credit to students with credit for course 120. Designed for departmental majors specializing in environmental and population biology and in medicine. Introduction to mechanics and processes of evolution, with emphasis on natural selection, population genetics, speciation, evolutionary rates, and patterns of adaptation. Coverage of fundamental principles of evolution, with special focus on medicine and human health. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 186. Evolutionary Medicine: Clinical Perspective on Medical, Surgical, and Psychiatric Disorders

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. From breast cancer and heart failure to self-injury, obsessive-compulsive and eating disorders, all contemporary medical issues have evolutionary roots. Understanding of application of evolutionary thought to issues faced by physicians, veterinarians, psychologists, and other healthcare providers. Development of awareness and understanding of evolutionary roots of these disorders provides future healthcare providers with expanded perspective that enhances their practice and benefits their patients in whatever field they enter. Letter grading.

  • 187. Variable Topics in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisites: Life Sciences 1, 2, 3, 4, 23L. Investigation, discussion, and study of current important issues involving substantial biological considerations in ecology and evolutionary biology. Contact Undergraduate Advising Office for current topics. May be repeated for credit. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 188. Special Courses in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Units: 2

    Seminar, two hours. Departmentally sponsored experimental or temporary courses, such as those taught by visiting faculty members. May be repeated for credit. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 188SA. Individual Studies for USIE Facilitators

    Units: 1

    Tutorial, to be arranged. Enforced corequisite: Honors Collegium 101E. Limited to junior/senior USIE facilitators. Individual study in regularly scheduled meetings with faculty mentor to discuss selected USIE seminar topic, conduct preparatory research, and begin preparation of syllabus. Individual contract with faculty mentor required. May not be repeated. Letter grading.

  • 188SB. Individual Studies for USIE Facilitators

    Units: 1

    Tutorial, to be arranged. Enforced requisite: course 188SA. Enforced corequisite: Honors Collegium 101E. Limited to junior/senior USIE facilitators. Individual study in regularly scheduled meetings with faculty mentor to finalize course syllabus. Individual contract with faculty mentor required. May not be repeated. Letter grading.

  • 188SC. Individual Studies for USIE Facilitators

    Units: 2

    Tutorial, to be arranged. Enforced requisite: course 188SB. Limited to junior/senior USIE facilitators. Individual study in regularly scheduled meetings with faculty mentor while facilitating USIE 88S course. Individual contract with faculty mentor required. May not be repeated. Letter grading.

  • 189. Advanced Honors Seminars

    Units: 1

    Seminar, three hours. Limited to 20 students. Designed as adjunct to undergraduate lecture course. Exploration of topics in greater depth through supplemental readings, papers, or other activities and led by lecture course instructor. May be applied toward honors credit for eligible students. Honors content noted on transcript. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 189HC. Honors Contracts

    Units: 1

    Tutorial, three hours. Limited to students in College Honors Program. Designed as adjunct to upper division lecture course. Individual study with lecture course instructor to explore topics in greater depth through supplemental readings, papers, or other activities. May be repeated for maximum of 4 units. Individual honors contract required. Honors content noted on transcript. Letter grading.

  • 190. Research Colloquia in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Units: 1

    Seminar, one hour. Designed to bring together students undertaking supervised tutorial research in seminar setting with one or more faculty members to discuss their own work or related work in discipline. Led by one supervising faculty member. P/NP grading.

  • 191. Variable Topics Research Seminars: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Units: 4

    Seminar, three hours. Seminars on current issues in research in ecology and evolutionary biology. Consult "Schedule of Classes" for topics and instructors. If content is approved in advance by Undergraduate Advising Office, undergraduate departmental majors may petition to use course to satisfy or partially satisfy elective requirement. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 192A. Undergraduate Assistant in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Units: 4

    Seminar, 12 hours. Limited to juniors/seniors. Training and supervised practicum for advanced undergraduate students in assisting with courses related to biology. Students assist in preparation of materials and development of innovative programs with guidance of faculty members in small course settings. Consult Undergraduate Advising Office for further information. May not be applied toward course requirements for departmental majors. May be repeated for credit. P/NP grading.

  • 192B. Undergraduate Assistant in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Units: 2

    Seminar, six hours. Limited to juniors/seniors. Training and supervised practicum for advanced undergraduate students in assisting with courses related to biology. Students assist in preparation of materials and development of innovative programs with guidance of faculty members in small course settings. Consult Undergraduate Advising Office for further information. May not be applied toward course requirements for departmental majors. May be repeated for credit. P/NP grading.

  • 193. Journal Club Seminars: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Units: 1

    Seminar, two hours. Enforced corequisite: one course from 198A through 198D or 199. Limited to undergraduate students. Development of in-depth understanding of and ability to discuss current literature in field of students' own research. May be repeated for credit. P/NP grading.

  • 194A. Research Group or Internship Seminars: Access to Research Careers

    Units: 2

    Seminar, six hours. Designed for juniors/seniors in research traineeships or those who have strong commitment to pursue graduate studies in molecular, biochemical, physiological, or biomedical fields. Weekly presentation and discussion of paper selected from current literature. No more than 4 units may be applied toward departmental majors. May be repeated for credit. Letter grading.

  • 194B. Research Group or Internship Seminars: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Units: 1

    Seminar, two hours. Corequisite: one course from 198A through 198D or 199. Designed to encourage participation and stimulate progress in specific research areas for undergraduate students who are part of departmental research group or internship. Discussion of use of specific research methods and current literature in field or of research of faculty members or students. May be repeated for credit. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 195. Community or Corporate Internships in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Units: 4

    Tutorial, 12 hours. Internship course for juniors/seniors to be supervised by Center for Community Learning, fieldwork site, and faculty adviser. Consult Undergraduate Advising Office for more information. Students meet on regular basis with instructor and provide periodic reports of their experience. May not be applied toward requirements for departmental majors. May be repeated twice for credit. Individual contract with supervising faculty member required. P/NP grading.

  • 196. Research Apprenticeship in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Units: 2 to 4

    Tutorial, three hours per week per unit. Limited to juniors/seniors. Entry-level research apprenticeship for upper division students under guidance of faculty mentor. May be repeated for credit. Individual contract required. P/NP or letter grading.

  • 198A. Honors Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Units: 4

    Tutorial, 12 hours. Limited to juniors/seniors. Supervised individual research designed to broaden and deepen students' knowledge of some phase of biology. Must be taken with Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department faculty for at least two terms and for total of at least 8 units. Eight units may be applied toward departmental majors. Individual contract required. In Progress grading (credit to be given only on completion of course 198B). Students may elect to enroll in additional research through courses 198C and 198D (letter grading). Report on progress must be presented to undergraduate adviser each term 198 course is taken.

  • 198B. Honors Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Units: 4

    Tutorial, 12 hours. Limited to juniors/seniors. Supervised individual research designed to broaden and deepen students' knowledge of some phase of biology. Must be taken with Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department faculty for at least two terms and for total of at least 8 units. Eight units may be applied toward departmental majors. Individual contract required. Letter grading. Students may elect to enroll in additional research through courses 198C and 198D (letter grading). Report on progress must be presented to undergraduate adviser each term 198 course is taken.

  • 198C. Honors Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Units: 4

    Tutorial, 12 hours. Limited to juniors/seniors. Supervised individual research designed to broaden and deepen students' knowledge of some phase of biology. Must be taken with Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department faculty for at least two terms and for total of at least 8 units. Eight units may be applied toward departmental majors. Students may elect to enroll in additional research through courses 198C and 198D. Report on progress must be presented to undergraduate adviser each term 198 course is taken. Individual contract required. Letter grading.

  • 198D. Honors Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Units: 4

    Tutorial, 12 hours. Limited to juniors/seniors. Supervised individual research designed to broaden and deepen students' knowledge of some phase of biology. Must be taken with Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department faculty for at least two terms and for total of at least 8 units. Eight units may be applied toward departmental majors. Students may elect to enroll in additional research through courses 198C and 198D. Report on progress must be presented to undergraduate adviser each term 198 course is taken. Individual contract required. Letter grading.

  • 199. Directed Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Units: 2 to 4

    Tutorial, six to 12 hours. Preparation: submission of written proposal outlining study or research to be undertaken. Studies to involve laboratory or field-related research, not literature surveys or library research. Proposal to be developed in consultation with instructor and submitted for approval to undergraduate adviser before day instruction begins in that term. Limited to juniors/seniors. Supervised individual research under guidance of faculty mentor. At end of term culminating report describing progress of study or research and signed by student and instructor must be presented to undergraduate adviser. Only one 199 course may be applied toward departmental majors. May be repeated for credit. Individual contract required. Letter grading.

  • M200A. Evolutionary Biology

    Units: 4

    (Same as Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences M216.) Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Current concepts and topics in evolutionary biology, including microevolution, speciation and species concepts, analytical biogeography, adaptive radiation, mass extinction, community evolution, molecular evolution, and development of evolutionary thought. S/U or letter grading.

  • 200B. Ecology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Principles and current topics in ecology. Topics may include island biogeography, disturbance ecology, chemical ecology, and physiological ecology. S/U or letter grading.

  • 200C. Advanced Animal Behavior

    Units: 4

    Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Survey of major topics in field of behavioral ecology. Topics include introduction to variety of research pursuits in field and questions and debates at leading edges of research. Advanced interdisciplinary primer that spans topics from mechanisms of behavior at molecular and cellular levels to consequences of behavior for Darwinian fitness and ecological and evolutionary processes. S/U or letter grading.

  • 201. Introduction to R for Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Units: 1

    Lecture, six hours; discussion, six hours. Designed for departmental Ph.D. students. Offered as intensive two-day course at beginning of term. Introduction to R language. Topics include working at command line, writing scripts and functions, flow control, graphics, and conducting basic simulations in discrete and continuous time. S/U grading.

  • C202. Advanced Statistics in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, two hours; laboratory, two hours. Overview of and application of advanced statistical methods that go beyond linear models and mean comparison, including bootstrapping, permutations, Bayesian statistics, mixed models, clustering, and network analysis. At course end students should be able to explain which statistical approaches are appropriate for different types of research questions and critically evaluate their outputs. All statistical analysis conducted in R. Concurrently scheduled with course C172. S/U or letter grading.

  • 203. Marine Botany and Physiology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, two hours; discussion, one hour; laboratory, six hours; experimental project. Designed for graduate students. Structure, reproduction, life histories, and biology of marine algae, with emphasis on physiological ecology and biochemistry. Techniques in culture and physiological, ecological, and biochemical investigation of algae. Given off campus at marine science center. S/U or letter grading.

  • 204. Advanced Biology of Algae

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour. Consideration of current research in experimental phycology. Topics include discussion of appropriate aspects of chemical and physical oceanography and limnology; algal physiology; biochemistry, physiological ecology, and algal processes in ocean and freshwater habitats. S/U or letter grading.

  • 205. Marine Invertebrate Biology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours; laboratory, eight hours. Functional morphology, life histories, and systematics of marine invertebrates of all major and most minor taxa; emphasis on living animal and its habitat. Given off campus at marine science center. S/U or letter grading.

  • 206. Advanced Ichthyology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; laboratory, three hours. Requisite: course 111 or 112. Advanced study of various aspects of fish biology. Theme varies from year to year. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

  • 208. Advanced Vertebrate Morphology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, two hours; laboratory, eight hours. Requisite: course 110. Emphasis on functional approach to evolution of vertebrate locomotor, feeding, and circulatory systems. Laboratory includes comparative and experimental analyses of morphological adaptation. Independent project required. May be repeated once for credit. S/U or letter grading.

  • 209. Behavior of Arthropods

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Advanced study of topics in behavior of terrestrial arthropods, including communication, feeding, reproductive, and social behavior. Emphasis on both mechanistic and adaptive approaches toward understanding behavior. Independent project required. S/U or letter grading.

  • 210. Advanced Ornithology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, two hours; laboratory, two hours; fieldwork, two hours. Requisite: course 114A. Advanced study of topics in modern avian biology. Emphasis on experimental approaches to investigations of physiology (energetics, nutrition, osmoregulation), ecology (population and community organization), and behavior (foraging, breeding, sociality). S/U or letter grading.

  • 217. Marine Ecology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour. Designed for graduate students. Structure, diversity, and energetics of marine communities; behavior, population dynamics, and biogeography of component species; associated oceanography and geology. Given off campus at marine science center. S/U or letter grading.

  • 218. Oceanology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour. Designed for graduate students. Ecology and dynamics of pelagic and benthic associations; physicochemical properties of seawater and marine substrates and their biological significance; qualitative and quantitative methods of oceanology. Given off campus at marine science center. S/U or letter grading.

  • C219A. Mathematical and Computational Modeling in Ecology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Enforced requisite: Life Sciences 30B or Mathematics 3B or 31A. Recommended: courses 100, 122, Life Sciences 1, Mathematics 3C. Introduction to modeling dynamics of ecological systems, including formulation and analysis of mathematical models, basic techniques of scientific programming, probability and stochastic modeling, and methods to relate models to data. Examples from ecology but techniques and principles applicable throughout life and physical sciences. Concurrently scheduled with course C119A. S/U or letter grading.

  • C219B. Modeling in Ecological Research

    Units: 4

    Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Requisite: course C219A. Advanced techniques in mathematical and computational modeling of ecological dynamics and other population dynamic problems. Independent research projects developed by students. Topics include model formulation, stochastic models, fitting models to data, sensitivity analysis, presentation of model results, and other topics from current literature. Concurrently scheduled with course C119B. S/U or letter grading.

  • 224. Marine Molecular Biology

    Units: 8

    Lecture, three hours; laboratory, eight hours. Preparation: background in marine sciences, basic cell biology and biochemistry. Ten-week intensive course designed to train marine biologists in advanced techniques of cell and molecular biology. Independent project required. Given off campus at marine science center. S/U or letter grading.

  • M226. Global Health Measures for Biological Emergencies

    Units: 4

    (Same as Epidemiology M226.) Lecture, four hours. Requisite: Epidemiology 220. Mitigation of bioterrorism falls outside traditional public health programs and public health graduate education. Because of seriousness of such threats, it is important that individuals trained in public health understand problems and responses. Letter grading.

  • CM228. Earth Process and Evolutionary History

    Units: 4

    (Same as Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences CM273.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; laboratory, two hours. Enforced requisites: Chemistry 14A, 14B (or 20A, 20B), Life Sciences 1, 2, 3, 4. Recommended: one course from Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences M100, 101, 102, 103, M105, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology 109, 116, 120, 121, 122, M131, 135, 142, 152, 154, Geography 100, 101, or 103. Exploration of relationship between physical processes affecting surface of Earth, such as tectonics and climate, and biological evolution. Geologic history of Earth from its formation and history of scientific advancement. Changes through time in Earth/atmosphere/ocean system discussed in terms of their effects on biological process and biodiversity. Climate issues considered in this historical context of global process. Modern anthropogenic climate change placed in context of geologic record of climate change. Concurrently scheduled with course CM173. S/U or letter grading.

  • CM228. Earth Process and Evolutionary History (Effective Winter 2018 )

    Units: 6

    (Formerly numbered C228.) (Same as Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences CM273.) Lecture, four hours; laboratory, three hours. Requisites: Chemistry 14A, 14B (or 20A, 20B), Life Sciences 1, 2, 3, and 4, or 7A, 7B, and 7C (or 7A and introductory course in geology). Exploration of relationship between physical processes, such as tectonics and climate, and how they affect surface and impact biology of Earth. Study of evolution of universe, Earth, and life, with integration of history of science, including Darwinian evolution and plate tectonics revolutions. Study of formation of matter offers tools to understand geologic process of climate and ecology of Earth. Past climate change to examine expected future human-influenced climate. Consideration of major events in history of life on Earth. Data and methods from geology, genetics, and geochemistry are integrated to reconstruct past events. This reveals how Earth processes shaped life and how life shaped Earth. Concurrently scheduled with course CM173. Letter grading.

  • C230. Comparative Biology and Macroevolution

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; laboratory, three hours. Requisite: Life Sciences 1. Recommended: one introductory statistics course. Modern comparative biology provides framework for studying broad questions in evolution -- How do body shapes evolve? What are dynamics of evolutionary arms race? Why are there so many species in tropics? Why are there so many beetles and so few crocodiles? Did dinosaurs put brakes on diversification of mammals? Examination of why tree of life is essential to understanding patterns of biological diversity and how phylogenetic comparative methods are used to test macroevolutionary hypotheses. Concurrently scheduled with course C174. S/U or letter grading.

  • M231. Molecular Evolution

    Units: 4

    (Same as Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences M217.) Lecture, two hours; discussion, two hours. Series of advanced topics in molecular evolution, with special emphasis on molecular phylogenetics. Topics may include nature of genome, neutral evolution, molecular clocks, concerted evolution, molecular systematics, statistical tests, and phylogenetic algorithms. Themes may vary from year to year. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

  • 232. Advanced Ecology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; field trip, three hours. Requisite: course 122. Concepts and topics in ecology, evolutionary or behavioral ecology, or theoretical ecology. Topics vary from year to year and may include island biogeography, tropical biology, biodiversity, modeling in ecology, habitat selection, community structure and organization, and ecology and evolution of reproductive rates. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

  • 233. UCLA/La Kretz Workshop in Conservation Genomics

    Units: 2

    Lecture, two hours; discussion, one hour; laboratory, two hours. Five-day field experience at La Kretz Center Field Station and Stunt Ranch in Santa Monica Mountains. Conservation biology and genetics have had long and intimate relationship and constitute one key application of evolutionary analysis to real-world biological problems. Impacts of population genetics, phylogenetics, and phylogeography have been particularly striking for conservation biology and have helped solve some of most pressing problems in biological conservation. Annual workshop to provide training environment for small group of motivated graduate students to explore how conservation problems can best be addressed with genomic-level data. Hands-on experience on efficient collection, troubleshooting, and analysis of large datasets for conservation-relevant problems. Active participation from members of several U.S. government agencies at forefront of endangered species protection and management, providing forum for exploring relevant aspects of conservation genomics to managers. S/U grading.

  • C234. Practical Computing for Evolutionary Biologists and Ecologists

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; laboratory, two hours. Enforced requisite: Life Sciences 1. Introduction to fundamental skills needed for manipulation, analysis, and visualization of large data sets. Basic programming and scripting in Python as well as working in shell, regular expressions, and related topics. Concurrently scheduled with course C177. Letter grading.

  • C235. Population Genetics

    Units: 4

    (Formerly numbered 235.) Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Basic principles of genetics of population, dealing with genetic structure of natural populations and mechanisms of evolution. Equilibrium conditions and forces altering gene frequencies, polygenic inheritance, molecular evolution, and methods of quantitative genetics. Concurrently scheduled with course C135. S/U or letter grading.

  • 236. Seminar: Marine Molecular Biology

    Units: 4

    Seminar, 10 hours. Requisite: course 224. Seminar on current issues and work in marine molecular biology. Given off campus at marine science center. S/U or letter grading.

  • C237. Communicating Science to Informal Audiences

    Units: 5

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; laboratory or fieldwork, two hours. Enforced requisite: one course from course 25, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences M10, Chemistry 2, 14A, 20A, Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences 1, 15, Environment M10, or Life Sciences 1. Designed for juniors/seniors. Combined instruction in inquiry-based teaching methods and learning pedagogy, with six weeks of supervised teaching experience at Santa Monica Pier Aquarium. Students practice communicating scientific knowledge and receive mentoring on how to improve their presentations to develop ocean science literacy at all levels and to encourage broad public understanding of science and environmental stewardship. Need for young scientists to learn how to communicate about their science to audiences is especially critical when considering that Americans are expected to comprehend and respond to increasingly complex issues, such as global climate change, with limited understanding of how natural world works. Concurrently scheduled with course C179. Letter grading.

  • M238. Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics and Climate

    Units: 4

    (Same as Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences M235.) Lecture, three hours. Interaction of ocean biogeochemical cycles with physical climate system. Biogeochemical processes controlling carbon dioxide and oxygen in oceans and atmosphere over time-scales from few million years to several years. Anthropogenic perturbation of global carbon cycle and climate. Response of ocean ecosystems to past and future global changes. Use of isotopes to study ocean biogeochemical cycles and climate. Interactions between biogeochemical cycles on land and in ocean. S/U or letter grading.

  • 240. Physiology of Marine Animals

    Units: 4

    Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour. Designed for graduate students. Lecture and laboratory studies on cellular, tissue, organ, and animal physiology; regulatory biology; metabolic characteristics of cells, energy transformations. Given off campus at marine science center. S/U or letter grading.

  • C242. Behavioral Ecology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, two hours. Requisites: course 100, Life Sciences 1, Mathematics 3C or 32A or Life Sciences 30B. Recommended: course 129. Evolutionary perspective of behavioral ecology, with extended consideration of selfish DNA, conflict with genomes, natural selection and coevolution, kin selection and diversity in group functioning and cooperation, social learning, game theory and alternative life histories, and human behavioral ecology. Concurrently scheduled with course C126. Letter grading.

  • 243. Animal Communication

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Requisites: Mathematics 3C or 32A, and Physics 1C and 4BL, or 6C or 6CH. Physical properties of animal signals and physiological mechanisms underlying their generation and reception. Lectures treat signal analysis, signal transmission, and receptor design in light of constraints placed on each sensory modality. Examples of communication systems using visual, auditory, chemical, electrical, and magnetic cues, with emphasis on biological adaptations for efficiently signaling species-specific information. S/U or letter grading.

  • 244. Advanced Insect Physiology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, two hours; laboratory, five hours. Detailed discussion of current problems in insect physiology, with advanced laboratory. S/U or letter grading.

  • 247. Advanced Plant Biology

    Units: 4

    Lecture, three hours; discussion, two hours. Requisite: course 162 or Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology C141. Open to undergraduates with consent of instructor. Designed to expose first-year graduate students to topics of current interest in plant biology. Subjects include plant genetics, growth and development, organelle structure, development and function, and plant-specific metabolic processes (photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, metabolism of small molecules). S/U or letter grading.

  • 250. Professional Skills for Biological Research

    Units: 2 to 3

    Seminar, two hours. Preparation, writing, and submission of research proposals. Collection and maintenance of field and laboratory data, preparation of scientific presentations, review of literature, and publishing strategies. Optional field trip offered during some years for 1 extra unit. S/U or letter grading.

  • 251. Seminar: Systematics

    Units: 2

    Seminar, two to four hours. Current topics in systematic biology, including methods development and specific applications in study of phylogeny. Theme varies from year to year. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

  • 253. Seminar: Plant Structure

    Units: 2

    Seminar, two hours. S/U or letter grading.

  • 255. Seminar: Invertebrate Zoology

    Units: 2

    Seminar, two hours. S/U or letter grading.

  • 259. Seminar: Herpetology

    Units: 2

    Seminar, three hours. Seminar on current approaches to herpetology. Main theme varies from year to year in areas such as biogeography, ecology, behavior, environmental physiology. S/U or letter grading.

  • 260. Seminar: Biology of Terrestrial Vertebrates

    Units: 2

    Seminar, two hours. S/U or letter grading.

  • 261. Molecular Ecology of Plant Populations

    Units: 2

    Seminar, two hours. Requisite: course M200A. Integration of ecological, population genetic, and evolutionary concepts to understand evolutionary ecology and conservation biology of plant populations in natural and disturbed settings, with application to both terrestrial and marine systems. Letter grading.

  • 263. Seminar: Population Genetics

    Units: 2 or 4

    Seminar, three to six hours. Seminar on topics of current interest in population genetics, such as kin selection, sociobiology, cultural evolution, conservation genetics, etc. S/U or letter grading.

  • 264. Seminar: Stomatal Function

    Units: 4

    Seminar, two hours; discussion, two hours. Open to undergraduates with consent of instructor. Structure and function of guard cells; gas exchange; environmental and hormonal regulation of stomatal responses; sensory transduction; stomatal adaptations. S/U or letter grading.

  • 265. Seminar: Biophysical Plant Ecology

    Units: 2

    Seminar, two hours. S/U or letter grading.

  • 267. Seminar: Current Topics in Evolutionary Ecology

    Units: 2

    Seminar, two hours. S/U or letter grading.

  • 268. Seminar: Population Biology

    Units: 2

    Seminar, two hours. S/U or letter grading.

  • 269. Seminar: Animal Ecology

    Units: 2

    Seminar, three hours. Advanced study of specific topics in animal ecology and related fields. S/U or letter grading.

  • 270. Seminar: Environmental Physiology

    Units: 2

    Seminar, two hours. S/U grading.

  • 271. Seminar: Phycology and Mycology

    Units: 2

    Seminar, two hours. Requisite: course 101. Advanced study in biology of algae and fungi. Topics in physiological ecology, physiology, and biochemistry of algae and fungi, and their industrial uses. Algae and fungi as experimental organisms. Phylogeny and origin of eukaryote organisms. Evolutionary origin of chloroplasts. S/U or letter grading.

  • 272. Seminar: Marine Biology

    Units: 2

    Seminar, two hours. S/U or letter grading.

  • 273. Seminar: Entomology

    Units: 2

    Seminar, two hours. Discussion of specific topics in entomology and related fields. Main theme varies from year to year, but usually emphasizes areas such as behavior, ecology, and evolution. S/U grading.

  • 274. Seminar: Behavioral Ecology

    Units: 2

    Seminar, two hours. Discussion of theoretical and empirical aspects of topics in behavioral ecology. S/U or letter grading.

  • 279. Seminar: Evolutionary Biology

    Units: 2

    Seminar, two hours. Requisite: course M231. Emphasis on particular issue in evolutionary biology, varying in topic whenever offered. Topics may include advances in phylogenetic methodology; relationship between development and evolution; biogeography, climate change, and faunal evolution; dispersal mechanisms and macroevolutionary patterns; adaptation and diversification; macroevolutionary patterns in fossil record. S/U or letter grading.

  • 282. Seminar: Ichthyology

    Units: 2

    Seminar, two hours. Requisite: course 111 or 112. Student presentations and discussion of specific topics in ichthyology. Theme varies from year to year. May be repeated for credit. S/U or letter grading.

  • M286. Seminar: Statistical Problem Solving for Population Biology

    Units: 2

    (Same as Statistics M286.) Seminar, two hours. Designed for graduate students. Statistical solutions to complex data analysis and/or experimental design problems encountered by biology graduate students in their own research. S/U or letter grading.

  • 288. Seminar: Plant Cell Biology

    Units: 2

    Seminar, two hours. Recommended preparation: course 162. S/U or letter grading.

  • M290. Seminar: Comparative Physiology

    Units: 2

    (Same as Physiological Science M290.) Seminar, two and one half hours. Discussion of specific topics in comparative physiology of animals. Topics vary from year to year, with emphasis on systems physiology, neuroethology, or behavioral physiology. S/U or letter grading.

  • 291. Seminar: Physiology and Biochemistry of Arthropods

    Units: 2

    Seminar, two hours. S/U or letter grading.

  • 296. Seminar: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Units: 1 to 4

    Seminar, three hours. Advanced study and analysis of current topics in cellular, organismic, and population biology. Discussion of current research and literature in research specialty of faculty member teaching course. S/U grading.

  • 297. Selected Topics in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Units: 1 to 4

    Seminar, one to three hours. Advanced study and analysis of variable research topics in research issues in ecology and evolutionary biology. Consult "Schedule of Classes" for topics and instructors. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. S/U or letter grading.

  • 299. Seminar: Parasitology

    Units: 2

    Seminar, two hours. S/U or letter grading.

  • 375. Teaching Apprentice Practicum

    Units: 1 to 4

    Seminar, to be arranged. Preparation: apprentice personnel employment as teaching assistant, associate, or fellow. Teaching apprenticeship under active guidance and supervision of regular faculty member responsible for curriculum and instruction at UCLA. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

  • 495. Preparation for Teaching Biology in Higher Education

    Units: 2

    Seminar, to be arranged. Designed for graduate students. Study of problems and methodologies in teaching biology, which includes workshops, seminars, apprentice teaching, and peer observation. S/U grading.

  • 496. Preparation for Teaching Biology in Higher Education

    Units: 2

    Lecture, two hours. Designed for graduate students. Strongly recommended as sequel to course 495 discussions on teaching, theory, and development of advanced skills. Study of methods and approaches to teaching of specific areas in biology, with emphasis on laboratory teaching, instructor/student interaction, and undergraduate motivation. S/U grading.

  • 596. Directed Individual (or Tutorial) Studies

    Units: 2 to 12

    Tutorial, to be arranged. Letter grading.

  • 596F. Directed Individual (or Tutorial) Studies

    Units: 2 to 8

    Tutorial, to be arranged. Given off campus at marine science center. S/U or letter grading.

  • 597. Preparation for M.A. Comprehensive Examination or Ph.D. Qualifying Examinations

    Units: 2 to 12

    Tutorial, to be arranged. May not be applied toward M.A. or Ph.D. course requirements. S/U grading.

  • 598. M.A. Thesis Research and Writing

    Units: 2 to 12

    Tutorial, to be arranged. S/U grading.

  • 599. Ph.D. Dissertation Research and Writing

    Units: 2 to 12

    Tutorial, to be arranged. S/U grading.